American artist John Singer Sargent painted this portrait of Madame Pierre Gautreau in Paris in 1884 and asked the Met to disguise the sitter's name upon selling it in 1916.

Madame Pierre Gautreau (the Louisiana-born Virginie Amélie Avegno; 1859–1915) was known in Paris for her artful appearance. Sargent hoped to enhance his reputation by painting and exhibiting her portrait. Working without a commission but with his sitter’s complicity, he emphasized her daring personal style, showing the right strap of her gown slipping from her shoulder. At the Salon of 1884, the portrait received more ridicule than praise. Sargent repainted the shoulder strap and kept the work for over thirty years. When, eventually, he sold it to the Metropolitan, he commented, “I suppose it is the best thing I have done,” but asked that the Museum disguise the sitter’s name.


  • Title: Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau)
  • Creator: John Singer Sargent
  • Date Created: 1883–84
  • Location Created: Paris, France
  • Physical Dimensions: 82 1/8 x 43 1/4in. (208.6 x 109.9cm)
  • Type: PAINTING
  • Rights: Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Medium: Oil on canvas

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