The Italian Giovanni Caselli invented the so-called "Pantelegraph" in 1856. This allowed him to create line drawings (manuscripts and sketches). From 1863, the first public "teleautographic" connections were established in England (London/Liverpool) and from 1856 in France (Paris/Lyon and Paris/Le Havre). Allegedly, there was also a "Pantelegraph" in China in 1885. The message was written with non-electrically-conductive ink onto a metal plate. The "Pantelegraph" then scanned the different conductivity of the surfaces and transmitted the information to the receivers as surges of current. This reproduced the non-conductive areas in the form of a characteristic line pattern, which can be seen on this Caselli picture telegram.