"The pilgrim will recall to us the idea of distance, the very immeasurability of the earth’s surface; but it will always be the landscape that determines the living being” — Carus’s own words about landscape painting in a letter of 1820. The pilgrim is walking through the night, along the dark valley towards the morning star. Carus had drawn on themes such as this since becoming friends with Caspar David Friedrich. But, besides being influenced by Friedrich’s thinking, Carus’s works are clearly in tune with the wider Romantic Zeitgeist. Quite similar images occur, for example, in Ludwig Tieck’s novel Franz Stern-balds Wanderungen (1798).