This canvas is a variation on the theme of the Immaculate Conception, emphasizing the purity of Mary and her triumph over evil, even before the birth of Christ. The Virgin appears as a New Eve, crushing the satanic serpent of heresy. On her head she wears a tiara, the three crowns of which allude to the bond between the Mother of God and the Trinity, while also identifying her with the Church and the authority of the Pope. In the upper right corner, an angel brandishes a whip inscribed with the name of John Duns Scotus, the “Doctor Subtilis” . As the art historian Francisco Stastny has explained, this detail reveals the Franciscan origin of the allegory; an order characterized by its staunch defense of the thesis affirming the exemption of Mary from original sin. The work appears to underline the preservation of Mary as an object of worship enshrined by the 1661 papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VII at the petition of Spain’s Philip IV; it is no coincidence that the keys with which the dragon is chained are marked with the names of both these men, as well as that of the Franciscan Order. This painting has been attributed to Basilio de Santa Cruz, the indigenous master entrusted with decorating Cusco’s cathedral during Bishop Manuel de Mollinedo y Angulo’s period of office (1673-1699).