In the first century AD, the Roman historian Pliny reported on the unique navigation methods of Indian ships, “they carry birds on board with them and at fairly frequent intervals set them free and follow the course they take as they make for the land.” This image from the Buddhist Stupa at Borobudur shows one type of ship involved in trade from India to East Asia.


  • Title: Relief Panel of a Ship at Borobudur Stupa
  • Subject Keywords: Dr. Anna Spudich, India Spice Trade
  • Original Source: Wikimedia Commons
  • Rights: Creative Commons license
  • Region: Borobudur Buddhist Stupa
  • Bibliography: Borobudur Buddhist Stupa. Michael J. Lowe.

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