Nitrate was exploited in Chile through three production systems, known as “Paradas”, “Shank” and “Guggenheim”. The Paradas System, the most rudimentary of them, was invented by Czech naturalist and geologist Tadeo Haenke and was used by the nitrate industry’s pioneers in the Tarapacá region. According to this system, saltpeter was heated over a direct fire to extract pure nitrate. In the 1870s, British engineer Santiago Humberstone brought the Shank System to Chile, which led to the modernisation and growth of the offices, increased their production and reduced costs. Lastly, the Guggenheim System was introduced by engineer Elías Cappelen Smith and implemented in Chile in the 1920s. This was the most efficient system and managed to enhance the production process. However, having developed in the midst of the Chilean saltpeter crisis, it was adopted by two offices only: María Elena and Pedro de Valdivia.