Silver fork smuggled by Ludwig Wertheim out of Nazi Germany and into France in the 1930s. When Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, 24 year old Ludwig was in France on business for the family wine import business. They were observant Jews and it was decided that Ludwig should remain in France. He made a few trips home to Wurzburg during which he smuggled many family valuables into France. He last saw his parents in April, 1936. His German passport was revoked, but he was issued refugee papers by the French government. After the German occupation of France in 1939, Ludwig joined the French Foreign Legion and served until his demobilization on November 10, 1945. The fork and spoon (2005.4.3) are the only family possessions that he was able to recover.