Grupo Frente: Through its emphasis on intuition, empiricism, and individualism, the Rio de Janeiro–based Grupo Frente (1954−56) was the conceptual counterpart of the more orthodox Grupo ruptura in São Paulo. Unlike the latter tight-knit group, Grupo Frente was a loose association of artists who came together to exhibit, discuss, and share ideas about Concrete art. The collective was more interested in representing organic forms in their work while remaining within the nonfigurative, geometric conventions of Concrete art. The group’s avowed preference for color is evident in Faixas ritmadas [Rhythmic Strips] (1953), an iconic piece made of chromatic progressions by Ivan Serpa (1923−1973), the leader and founder of this movement. During its two-year existence, the Grupo Frente played a key role in the redefinition of Brazilian art through the exploration of the relationship between painting and architecture, through new techniques, and even through new technologies.
Credit Line: The Adolpho Leirner Collection of Brazilian Constructive Art, museum purchase funded by the Caroline Wiess Law Foundation