While Thomas Cole built a successful career painting the scenery of the Hudson River Valley, he aspired to imbue landscape with a higher purpose. As early as 1827 he conceived a grand cycle of paintings that would illustrate the rise and fall of a civilization, and a few years later he began sketching and developing his ideas. The resulting series charts the course of an imaginative empire as it appears in the midst of wilderness, expands into a glistening metropolis, and collapses into ruin. Cole’s pessimistic allegory about doomed imperial ambition—likely intended as a warning about the fate of the United States—differed from prevailing beliefs among his contemporaries that the young Republic would never fail.
Luman Reed, who commissioned The Course of Empire, did not live to see its completion. He died in June 1836, but Reed's family encouraged Cole to complete the work. The series was exhibited to great acclaim in New York later that year. The Course of Empire, along with the rest of Reed's collection, became the core of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts. That group of works was donated to the New-York Historical Society in 1858, forming the foundation of its acclaimed collection of American landscape painting.
In this second painting of the series, Cole imagined a society in a state of ideal balance between humankind and nature. The arts of civilization flower: domesticated animals appear at center, dancers pirouette to the music of a flute at right, and smoke rises from a Stonehenge-like temple in the background. A man tracing geometric forms on the ground suggests the birth of mathematics, and a boy drawing on the footbridge at lower center points to the birth of the visual arts. A hewn tree stump at right, however, attests to the destruction necessary for this young civilization to develop, and a soldier in military garb and two rams butting heads warn of the future to come.