While Thomas Cole built a successful career painting the scenery of the Hudson River Valley, he aspired to imbue landscape with a higher purpose. As early as 1827 he conceived a grand cycle of paintings that would illustrate the rise and fall of a civilization, and a few years later he began sketching and developing his ideas. The resulting series charts the course of an imaginative empire as it appears in the midst of wilderness, expands into a glistening metropolis, and collapses into ruin. Cole’s pessimistic allegory about doomed imperial ambition—likely intended as a warning about the fate of the United States—differed from prevailing beliefs among his contemporaries that the young Republic would never fail.

Luman Reed, who commissioned The Course of Empire, did not live to see its completion. He died in June 1836, but Reed's family encouraged Cole to complete the work. The series was exhibited to great acclaim in New York later that year. The Course of Empire, along with the rest of Reed's collection, became the core of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts. That group of works was donated to the New-York Historical Society in 1858, forming the foundation of its acclaimed collection of American landscape painting.

Cole executed the series of paintings in their narrative order, beginning with this painting: The Savage State. The landscape is an untamed wilderness. The sun rises to the left, signaling the dawn of civilization. A small man-made clearing marks what Cole described as “the first rudiments of society,” and a hunting scene shows “Men banded together for mutual aid in the chase.” The artist signed the painting "T. Cole" on a rock at the bottom right.


  • Title: The Course of Empire: The Savage State
  • Creator: Thomas Cole
  • Date Created: ca. 1834
  • Physical Dimensions: 39 1/4 x 63 1/4 in. (99.7 x 160.7 cm)
  • Type: Painting
  • Medium: Oil on canvas
  • Art Form: Painting
  • Object Number: 1858.1
  • Credit Line: New-York Historical Society, Gift of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts

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