The establishment of Cumann na mBan was the result of a series of events which began with the third Home Rule Bill of 1912. The Bill proposed the establishment of an all-Ireland parliament which would have control over most domestic matters. It was opposed by many Unionists in the country particularly those in Ulster who wished, at the very least, to be excluded from the implementation of Home Rule. As part of their campaign the Ulster Volunteer Force was formed which proposed to
resist Home Rule by any means necessary, organising themselves as a military force which would later import large quantities of arms and ammunition.