The Fourth Vessel: The Sun's Heat Burning Humanity

Unknownabout 1255–1260

The J. Paul Getty Museum

The J. Paul Getty Museum
Los Angeles, United States

The fourth angel poured out its vessel on the sun, and it was given to him to afflict men with heat and fire. And men were scorched with great heat, and they blasphemed the name of God.(Apocalypse 16:8-9)

After three vessels had already been poured out on the earth, the fourth was poured out on the sun, which in turn rained down fire and heat on the earth. The illuminator conveyed a sense of the intensity of the human suffering through the figures' desperate gestures. The heat even forces John to take refuge by covering his head with a cloak. So that he can still see what is happening, he props up the front of his cloak with his staff.


  • Title: The Fourth Vessel: The Sun's Heat Burning Humanity
  • Creator: Unknown
  • Date Created: about 1255–1260
  • Location Created: London (probably), England
  • Physical Dimensions: Leaf: 31.9 × 22.5 cm (12 9/16 × 8 7/8 in.)
  • Type: Folio
  • External Link: Find out more about this object on the Museum website.
  • Medium: Tempera colors, gold leaf, colored washes, pen and ink on parchment
  • Terms of Use: Open Content
  • Number: 83.MC.72.33
  • Culture: English
  • Credit Line: The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, Ms. Ludwig III 1, fol. 33
  • Creator Display Name: Unknown
  • Classification: Manuscripts (Documents)

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