One night in 1785, a group of Tongva Indians armed with bows and arrows approached San Gabriel Mission. One of them was Toypurina (1760-1799) , a young medicine woman. They were angry that the missionaries had banned traditional dances. It was just the latest of many assaults on their culture and acts of violence against them. Spanish soldiers ambushed the Tongva, captured 21 of them, and publicly whipped the captives. Toypurina and three others were found guilty of leading the rebellion and imprisoned. She was baptized a Christian and banished to Mission San Carlos Borromeo near Monterey.


  • Title: Toypurina
  • Creator: Judith F. Baca
  • Date Created: 1996
  • Location Created: Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • Subject Keywords: Tongva, Indians, missions, resistance, California
  • Type: Photograph
  • Original Source: Judith F. Baca/SPARCinLA

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