Englische violet, a variant of the viola d’amore, with eight playing strings (later reduced to seven) and 24 sympathetic strings; viol outline. Front two-piece, of ﬁne to medium grain with fine grain at centre; highly arched with strong depression around the flame-shaped sound-holes. Below end of fingerboard a small inserted pierced rosette in a third soundhole outlined with an alternating bone/ebony collar. Purfling and black edging only on the front. Ribs and one-piece back of bird’s-eye maple. Pale golden varnish. Flat back has two folds so that ribs taper towards neck and tail; two transverse bars and a soundpost plate. Twenty-four tuning pins with watch-key heads set in recess in the tailblock in two sets, twelve each side of hookbar of ivory.