Many of the details in this work, such as the particular features of the Virgin’s face, the layers of detailed brushstrokes, the way in which the perspective is constructed, and the folds in the clothing led to the belief that the Flemish painter Hans Memling was the artist behind this small painting. However, other details have helped researchers to determine that it is more likely to have been the work of one of his students. The interaction between the child and the goldfinch mirrors Albrecht Dürer’s engraving, Virgin and Child with the Monkey, which was widely circulated at the time and dated between 1497 and 1498, after Memling’s death in 1494. The style of the Virgin’s neckline also became fashionable in the early 16th century. Similarly, the cruciform pillars in the background do not appear in any of his other works. It is therefore thought to have been painted by one of his students or followers, based on works by the master.