Military leader Winfield Scott served under fourteen presidents, throughout which time he carried out the country’s multi-border expansionist plans. His role in the War of 1812 (1812–15) elevated him to hero status. Later, in 1838, he led the forced removal of the Cherokee from their lands in the south and east, under the Indian Removal Act. During the Mexican-American War (1846–48), Scott commanded troops that invaded Mexico City, and his military strategy recommendations at the onset of the Civil War became key to the Union Army’s success. Scott also ran for the presidency, in 1852, but lost to Franklin Pierce.