Anne Claude de Tubières-Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, comte de Caylus, marquis d'Esternay, baron de Bransac, was a French antiquarian, proto-archaeologist and man of letters.
Born in Paris, he was the eldest son of Lieutenant-General Anne de Tubières, comte de Caylus. His mother, Marthe-Marguerite de Villette de Mursay, comtesse de Caylus, was the daughter of vice-admiral Philippe, Marquis de Villette-Mursay.
His younger brother was Charles de Tubières de Caylus, who became a naval officer and governor of Martinique.
He was a cousin of Mme de Maintenon, who brought Marthe-Marguerite up like her own daughter. Marthe-Marguerite wrote valuable Souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV; these were edited by Voltaire, and by many later editors.