Basilicata, also known by its ancient name Lucania, is an administrative region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two coastlines: a 30-km stretch on the Tyrrhenian Sea between Campania and Calabria, and a longer coastline along the Gulf of Taranto between Calabria and Apulia. The region can be thought of as the "instep" of Italy, with Calabria functioning as the "toe" and Apulia the "heel".
The region covers about 10,000 km². In 2010 the population was slightly under 600,000. The regional capital is Potenza. The region is divided into two provinces: Potenza and Matera.
Its inhabitants are generally known as Lucanians, although this ethnonym should properly refer to ancient Lucania's populations.