Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician, lawyer, and kleptocrat who served as the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. Espousing an ideology of "constitutional authoritarianism" under the New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986. One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos' rule was infamous for its corruption, extravagance, and brutality.
Throughout his political career, Marcos claimed to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines." A number of his claims have been found to be false, with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd." After World War II, he became a lawyer, then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965, and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning of his 20-year rule, but would end in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, and a crushing debt crisis.