The Indian independence movement was a series of historic events with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India. The movement spanned from 1857 to 1947. The first nationalistic revolutionary movement for Indian independence emerged from Bengal. It later took root in the newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their fundamental right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations in British India, as well as more rights for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate, Aurobindo Ghosh and V. O. Chidambaram Pillai.
The last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s was characterized by Congress's adoption of Mahatma Gandhi's policy of non-violence and civil disobedience, and several other campaigns. Nationalists like Subhas Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Bagha Jatin, Surya Sen preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule.