Xiamen, alternately known as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. All together, these cover an area of 1,700.61 square kilometers with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010 and estimated at 4,290,000 as of 31 December 2019. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include most parts of all six of its districts, and with 4 Zhangzhou districts, form a built-up area of 6,279,700 inhabitants. This area is also about to connect with Quanzhou in the north, making up a future metropolis of nearly eight million people. The Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers away.
Xiamen Island possessed a natural harbor in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Under the Qing, both before and after the First Opium War, there was a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern Fujian who spread Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.