Yanagawa is a city located in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan.
As of April 30, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 71,848, with 24,507 households and a population density of 934.55 persons per km². The total area is 76.88 km².
On March 21, 2005 the towns of Yamato and Mitsuhashi were merged into Yanagawa.
Yanagawa is popular with Japanese tourists because of its 470 km of wide canals. Yanagawa riverboats, called "donkobune", are used to take tourists around the city. In 1987 a video documentary was created by Studio Ghibli about these canals and their restoration. The Story of Yanagawa's Canals is widely available and includes English subtitles.
Yanagawa was originally constructed in the mid-16th century by the Kamachi clan. Before then, it had been a traditional farming village, with the canals used for irrigation; Tanaka Yoshimasa ordered the canals to be maintained and built a castle in Yanagawa, which is still maintained today. The modern city was founded on April 1, 1952.
Yanagawa is the birthplace of Kitahara Hakushu, a Meiji era poet and writer of children's songs.