Calvary, or Golgotha, was, according to the canonical Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
The Gospels use the Koine term Kraníon or Kraniou topos when testifying to the place outside Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified. E.g., Mark 15:22, "Then they brought Jesus to the place called Golgotha." Kraníon is often translated as "Skull" in English, but more accurately means Cranium, the part of the skull enclosing the brain. In Latin it is rendered Calvariae Locus, from which the English term Calvary derives.
Its traditional site, identified by Queen Mother Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, in 325, is at the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. A 19th-century suggestion places it at the site now known as 'The Garden Tomb' on Skull Hill, some 500 m to the north, and 200 m north of the Damascus Gate. Historian Joan E. Taylor bases a location c. 175 m south-southeast of the traditional site on her reading of textual evidence.
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