Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar. Located 716 km north of Yangon on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of 1,225,553.
Mandalay is the economic centre of Upper Burma and considered the centre of Burmese culture. A continuing influx of Chinese immigrants, mostly from Yunnan, in the past twenty years, has reshaped the city's ethnic makeup and increased commerce with China. Despite Naypyidaw's recent rise, Mandalay remains Upper Burma's main commercial, educational and health center.