Doña Carlota Joaquina of Spain, was by birth a member of the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon and Infanta of Spain and by marriage Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves and titular Empress consort of Brazil.
Eldest daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma, she was married in May 1785 aged 10 with Infante John, Lord of the Infantado and Duke of Beja, second son of Queen Maria I of Portugal, in an attempt to cement ties between the Kingdoms of Spain and Portugal.
Detested by the Portuguese court —where she was called "the Harpy de Queluz" — Carlota Joaquina also gradually won the antipathy of the people, who accused her of promiscuity and influence her husband in favor of the interests of the Spanish crown.
After the escape of the Portuguese court to Brazil, Carlota Joaquina began conspiring against her husband, claiming that he had no mental capacity to govern Portugal and its possessions, thus wanting to establish a regency. Ambitious, she also planned to usurp the Spanish crown that was in the hands of Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte.