Duchy of Parma

The Duchy of Parma also referred to as Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, was an Italian state created in 1545 and located in northern Italy, in the current region of Emilia-Romagna.
Originally a realm of the Farnese family after Pope Paul III made it a hereditary duchy for his son, Pier Luigi Farnese, it was ruled by the dynasty until 1731, when the last duke, Antonio Farnese, died without direct heirs.
It was invaded by Napoleon and annexed by France, having its sovereignty restored in 1814 after Napoleon’s defeat. Napoleon's wife, Marie Louise, then ruled as its duchess until her death. Parma was restored to Bourbon rule in 1847, and in 1859, the duchy was formally abolished as it was integrated into the new Italian state.
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