Korolyov or Korolev is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 183,402.
It was known as Kaliningrad since 1938 and served as the leading Soviet center for production of anti-tank and air-defense guns. In 1946, in the aftermath of World War II, the artillery plant was reconstructed for production of rockets, launch vehicles, and spacecraft, under the guidance of Russian scientist and academician Sergei Korolev, who envisioned, consolidated and guided the activities of many people in the Soviet space-exploration program. The plant later became known as the RKK Energia; when the Vostok space vehicle was being developed, this research center was designated as NII-88 or POB 989.
Russian Mission Control Center is also located in Korolyov. Though the real control is decentralized due to security reasons, and all space aircraft may be controlled from many different locations across Russia, the historic center of control is still in Korolev, and is called FCC - Flights Control Center.