Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state, country, and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco is about 15 km from the state border with Italy.
Monaco has an area of 2.02 km², making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican City. Its population as of 2018 is 38,682. With 19,009 inhabitants per square kilometre, it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world.
Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, the world's shortest coastline of approximately 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, which is 161 metres above sea level.
Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. In 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km². Monaco is known to be one of the most expensive and the wealthiest places in the world.