Archibald James Campbell was an Australian civil servant in the Victorian government Customs Service. However, his international reputation rests on his expertise as an amateur ornithologist and naturalist.
He was one of the principal founders of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union in 1901 and served as its President in 1909 and 1928. He was also a founder member of the Victorian Wattle Club in 1899 and the Bird Observers Club in 1905. Campbell was active in the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria from its inception in 1880, leading pioneering expeditions and writing for their journal. He wrote the classic field guide to oology in Australia: Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds, published in 1901.