Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera close to the Italian region of Liguria, in Western Europe. It is bordered by France to the north, east and west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The principality is home to 38,682 residents, of whom 9,486 are Monégasque nationals; it is widely recognised for being one of the most expensive and wealthiest places in the world. The official language is French, although Monégasque, Italian and English are spoken and understood by a sizeable group.
With an area of 2.1 km², it is the second-smallest sovereign state in the world, after Vatican City. Its 19,009 inhabitants per square kilometre make it the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km and the world's shortest coastline of approximately 3.83 km; it has a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the state is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires ward, which is 161 metres above sea level. The principality is about 15 km from the border with Italy.
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