Nineveh Governorate is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh. It was an integral part of Assyria from the 25th century BC to the seventh century AD. It has an area of 37,323 km² and an estimated population of 2,453,000 people in 2003. Its chief city and provincial capital is Mosul, which lies across the Tigris river from the ruins of ancient Nineveh. Tal Afar is the second-biggest city. Before 1976, it was called Mosul Province and included the present-day Dohuk Governorate, which is now part of the autonomous Kurdistan Region.
An ethnically, religiously and culturally diverse region, it was partly conquered by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, with Mosul and the surrounding area being captured in 2014. Iraqi government forces retook the city in 2017.