Rochester is a city in the U.S. state of New York, the seat of Monroe County, and the third-most populous in the state after New York City and Buffalo, with an estimated population of 205,695 in 2020. The city of Rochester forms the core of a much larger metropolitan area with a population of around 1.1 million people, across six counties.
Rochester was one of the United States' first boomtowns, initially due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, and then as a manufacturing center, which spurred further rapid population growth. The city rose to prominence as the birthplace and home of some of America's most iconic companies, in particular Eastman Kodak, Xerox, and Bausch & Lomb, by which the region became a global center for science, technology, and research and development. This status has been aided by the presence of several internationally renowned universities and their research programs; these schools, along with many other smaller colleges, have played an increasingly large role in Greater Rochester's economy.