Stretching from north to south, the Japanese archipelago is home to diverse cultures that have flourished in its rich natural environments. Representing such cultures from northern Japan, this gallery is currently displaying traditional Ainu designs. Exhibits include the Ainu people’s clothing, tableware, and various tools that feature a range of Ainu designs, a distinctive example of which is a whirl pattern. Representing a southern culture, decorative art objects from the Ryūkyū Kingdom—mainly metalwork obects and textiles—are also on display in this gallery. The Ryūkyū Kingdom developed its unique culture through trade with regions in Asia including China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Southeast Asia.