Their Traces | Part 3

National Archives of Hungary

Centuries - Personalities - Signatures

Dualism in Hungary  
The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was born when the Article XII of 1867 entered into force. This opened a new era in Hungarian history. How was the way to the Compromise, and what were the main turning points in the history of the dualist state?
In 1859, with the defeat at Solferino, Austria lost much of its Italian territories. The loss forced Franz Joseph to arrange his relationship with Hungary and prepare for the war for the German unification.

On October 20, 1860, as an expression of his intention to reconciliation, he issued the October Diploma, which restored the government organs operated before 1848, and the official language became Hungarian again.

Ferenc Deák’s proposal on the immediate restoration of the Constitution, which reflects to the Royal Declaration of November 17, 1866.
Letter of Queen Elizabeth to the Prime Minister about the offer of the coronation gift to the orphans and widows of the former Honvéd soldiers, and to the disabled soldiers.
Report by Count Gyula Andrássy about the procedure of the greeting delegation on the occasion of the birth of Queen and Empress Elizabeth.
Prime Minister Kálmán Tisza informed the Correspondent of the House of Representatives about the opening of the Parliament.
The Great War
The war that broke out in the summer of 1914 was greater than ever before, soon contemporaries called it the “Great War”. The Prime Minister, István Tisza’s name was intertwined with the World War I in Hungary. Who was he and what did he represent?
Submission Nr. 5799 M.E. from the Hungarian Prime Minister, count István Tisza to the ruler on the extension of the scope of exceptional measures and issuing new regulations in the event of war.

Following the state of war with Serbia, the first measures of the Tisza government introduced Article 63 of 1912 on Sovereign Power. The article granted the government the right to govern by regulations, granted the authority to exercise sovereign power, including the right to appoint government commissioners, the suspension of municipal autonomies, statute of judges, preliminary press censorship, restrictions on freedom of assembly, the widespread utilization of police and gendarmerie forces, and strict actions against strikes.

“I have examined and weighed everything.” Franz Joseph’s Manifesto on the causes of the state of war between the Monarchy and Serbia, which begins with the words: “To my peoples!”, and the accompanying letter of the Emperor.
The text of the Emperor's Manifest: “To my peoples!”
Treaty of Trianon of 1920

As a result of the peace, Hungary lost about two-thirds of its territory and population, and became a small state of less than eight million inhabitants from a median power of twenty million people.

The Freemasonry
What is the mysterious Freemasonry, and who are the Freemasons? How did they come to Hungary and what role did they play here? How did the famous poet Endre Ady ended up in their organization?
Documents and objects related to Freemasonry, seized from Major Friedrich Ries.

The most important symbols of the Freemasons are the Volume of Sacred Law representing religious or philosophical texts, which are displayed during a Lodge meeting, manual tools of stonemasons, the square and the compasses, the all-seeing eye, the trowel and the raw and crafted ashlar.

The application of Endre Ady to the Martinovics Lodge, which is the oldest organization of the Grand Orient in Hungary, and the only one which operates, with smaller interruptions, since 1908. On the handwritten and signed form, Ady briefly described his biography.

The application was read out and debated at the lodge’s meeting on March 15, 1912, and the application was accepted. The objectives of the lodge were the same as those of the radicalists, namely the modernization of the country, universal and secret suffrage, rights for nationalities, and land reform.

Count János Fekete’s letter to his son, Count Ferenc Fekete, in which he quotes from Ovidius. János Fekete, a learned poet of the era, who exchanged letters with Voltaire as well, wrote his letters in five languages.

He also sent his French poems, one on Frederick (the Great) II Prussian King’s visit to Neustadt in 1770, and one on Prince Friedrich Ludwig Karl von Preußen’s death (December 28, 1796) as an attachment.

Credits: Story


This online exhibition is curated by László Sándor Németh with help of Gergő Paukovics and Ábel Takács.

The content of the exhibition is based on the temporary exhibition "Their Traces: Centuries-Personalities-Signatures", held at the National Archives of Hungary, Budapest from 15 March 2016 to 15 March 2018.
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Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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