Voces indígenas (Indigenous voices) Pavilion of Latin America-IILA (Italo-Latin American Institute)

IILA - Italo-Latin American Institute - Biennale Arte 2015

Commissioner

Sylvia Irrazábal

 

Curator

Alfons Hug

 

Deputy curator

Alberto Saraiva

 

Participants:

 

ARGENTINA

Sofia Medici and Laura Kalauz

 

PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA

Sonia Falcone and José Laura Yapita

 

BRAZIL

Adriana Barreto

Paulo Nazareth

 

CHILE

Rainer Krause

 

COLOMBIA

León David Cobo, María Cristina Rincón and Claudia Rodríguez

 

COSTA RICA

Priscilla Monge

 

ECUADOR

Fabiano Kueva

 

EL SALVADOR

Mauricio Kabistan

 

GUATEMALA

Sandra Monterroso

 

HAITI

Barbara Prézeau Stephenson

 

HONDURAS

Leonardo González

 

NICARAGUA

Raúl Quintanilla

 

PANAMA

Humberto Vélez

 

PARAGUAY

Erika Meza and Javier López

 

PERU

José Huamán Turpo

 

URUGUAY

Gustavo Tabares

 

SPECIAL PARTICIPATION

Ellen Slegers

Voces Indígenas
INDIGENOUS VOICES by ALFONS HUG - CURATOR OF IILA - LATIN AMERICAN PAVILION. The indigenous population of Latin America totals approx. 28 million people, i.e. 6% of the total population. Amerindian languages are used in all 20 countries with the exception of Cuba, Haiti and Dominican Republic. There are 600 altogether, 10% of the idioms existing in the world. About a third of them are threatened with extinction, and another third are in a critical situation. The languages Quechua (Peru, Ecuador, Plurinational State of Bolivia), Guarani (Paraguay), Aymara (Plurinational State of Bolivia, Chile, Peru) and Nahuatl (Mexico) each have several million speakers; in the case of Arara (Brazil), Boruga (Costa Rica), Pipil (Honduras) and Chorote (Argentina) there are fewer than a thousand speakers. More than 160 languages are spoken in Brazil, compared to only a handful in some Central American countries. 85 % of the languages that originally existed in the year 1500 are already extinct. Given this dramatic situation, it is a hopeful sign that a new indigenism can be observed in most countries of the continent, and traditional ways of life are being seriously discussed. This applies not only to Plurinational State of Bolivia, Ecuador and Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, but also to Brazil and even Argentina. Brazil has created several hundred reserves known as "terras indígenas". In Plurinational State of Bolivia, the "rights of nature" have been incorporated into the country's constitution as an expression of "sumak kawsay", which means "buen vivir", good life, or "pure and harmonious life" in the Quechua Language. The issue here is a way of life that enables a harmonious coexistence both among human beings and between man and nature. SOUND INSTALLATION. The sound installation consists of several indigenous Latin American Languages. We selected artists who have an affinity for the indigenous linguistic Heritage. The main factors in the choice of languages are not only the historical and cultural importance of the Language and ethnic Group, but also how close to the brink of extinction they are, and how much esthetic appeal they have. The artists will also determinate the subject and the type of texts used (e.g. fiction, fable, prayer, scientific work). On entering the room visitors will first hear a vague, polyphonic murmuring of all the voices together, a tapestry of sound reminiscent of a sacred space; they will then approach the individual loudspeakers though which every single language will be clearly audible. The radical reduction of the installation to sound only demands intense concentration on the part of the visitors; the more the listeners are willing to immerse themselves in the cosmos of rare languages, the more visual elements can be dispensed with. It is also noteworthy that all the artist are participating in a collective work that knows neither hegemony nor rank. COPYRIGHT OF THE MAP: Arch. Paola Pisanelli Nero. PHOTO: Fabio Bertolini 

The sound installation consists of several indigenous Latin American languages. We selected artists who have an affinity for the indigenous linguistic heritage.
Map©ArchP.Pisanelli Nero;Ph: Bertolini

On entering the room visitors will first hear a vague, polyphonic murmuring of all the voices together, a tapestry of sound reminiscent of a sacred space. Photo: F. Bertolini

Visitors will then approach the individual loudspeakers though which every single language will be clearly audible. Photo: F. Bertolini

The radical reduction of the installation to sound only demands intense concentration on the part of the visitors. Photo: F. Bertolini

The more the listeners are willing to immerse themselves in the cosmos of rare languages, the more visual elements can be dispensed with.

Sofia Medici & Laura Kalauz (Argentina)
Photo: Onas Indigenous led by Maurice Maitre in Paris for the Universal Exhibition of Paris of 1889, editions Adolfo Kwasny, Punta Arenas, Chile. SOFIA MEDICI | ARGENTINA1974, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lives and works in Buenos Aires, Argentina. LAURA KALAUZ1975, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lives and works in Zurich, Switzerland. Without title, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artists. Ethnic group: Selk’ nam or Onas. Language: Selk’ nam (Ona).   Speaker: Lola Kiepja. Location: Tierra del Fuego. Population: 0. Level of extinction: total (except for people of mixed race). The audio was recorded between 1966 and 1967 by Anne Chapman, French-American anthropologist who recorded chants and texts of the last representative of the Selk’ nam culture, Lola Kiepja (who, furthermore, was considered to be a Shaman by her group).“Here I am singingThe wind carries meI am following in the footsteps of those that have diedI have been allowed to come to the Mountain of PowerI have arrived at the great Mountain Range of the HeavensThe power of those who have died comes back to meFrom infinity they have spoken to me”.
Sonia Falcone and José Laura Yapita (Plurinational State of Bolivia)
Photo:Entrance of temple of Kalasasaya, Plurinational State of Bolivia. Photographer: Sonia Falcone. SONIA FALCONE | PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA1965, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Plurinational State of Bolivia. Lives and works in Mexico JOSÉ LAURA YAPITA  1968, La Paz, Plurinational State of Bolivia. Lives and works in La Paz   Without title, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artists. Ethnic group: Originating from Plurinational State of Bolivia Language: Aymara. Speaker: José Jesús Laura Yapita Location: Peru, Plurinational State of Bolivia, Chile and Argentina  Population: 2.100.000. Level of Extinction: ModerateThe ancestors always sowed wisely, keeping their produce in large storage spaces. In order to have a good harvest, whether in the hills or on the plains, they took a thorough reading of the weather and of nature. Doing so, did not require big machines or money; all that was necessary was to give importance to or carry out a good reading of the weather and mother earth. Today, industrialized countries use big machines, fertilizers with chemicals for sowing, with no concern for the damage they cause to the eco-system. In this way they also succeed in building big factories with much economic capital. With the technology at their disposal they contaminate the environment, consequently destroying the Pachamama (mother earth).  In order to do this, they receive economic assistance from their governments. These same products, technologically produced are sold to their own countries. Economic aid does not always reach the small producer in order to enhance production. In our lands, the way things are going, there is no longer, nor will there be in the future a good harvest. At this point it would be wise to reflect on other alternatives of production, so that our communities and ayllus might continue to produce.

Photo: Pintura Rupestre Paintings Alto de Mairana, Plurinational State of Bolivia. Photographer: Sonia Falcone

Adriana Barreto (Brazil)
Photo: Baku e Pajé from Sauapé village in her pharmacy. Photographer: Elaíze Farias/Amazônia Real. ADRIANA BARRETO | BRAZIL1949, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lives and works between Lisbon, Portugal, and Rio de Janeiro. The voice and a body which speaks, 2003 - 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: Cristina Guerra. Contemporary Art, Lisbon, Portugal. Ethnic group: Sateré-Maué. Language: Sateré-Maué. Speaker: Mecias Sateré. Location: Amazonia, Brazil Population: In 1826 there were more than 35.000 Indians. In 2014 there are fewer than 10.000. The name sounds strange: Sateré-Maué. It is one of the many designations for the Maué Indians. Sateré is a fire lizard. Some believe that Maué means “intelligent and wise parrot”, others argue that it is an onomatopoeic term used by the whites to say “bad man”. The language of the Maué Indians belongs to a language family of Tupi, with the contribution of many words from the mother language and others. Nowadays, there are a few more than ten thousand Sateré-Maué voices. The people belong to a pre-Colombian culture which is considered as being descended from the Incas. During the times of their ancestors they were said to have descended from the Andean Altiplano and entered Amazonia, occupying a vast area between the River Madeira and the headwaters of the Tapajós, in Pará. In 1826 more than 35.000 were counted.

Photo:
Baku e Pajé from Sauapé village in her pharmacy
Photographer: Elaíze Farias/Amazônia Real

Paulo Nazareth (Brazil)
Photo:RAP guarani and kaiowa GP4, Tekoha/Che Amba = Guaiviry / Mato Grosso do Sul / BrazilCourtesy of the artist, PNAC/LTDA and Mendes Wood DM, Sao Paulo. PAULO NAZARETH | BRAZIL1977, Governador Valadares, Brazil. Lives and works in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bureaux de langue: Guarani-Kaiowa, 2013, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist, PNAC/LTDA and Mendes Wood DM, Sao Paulo. Ethnic group: Guarani – Kaiowa   Language: Guarani – Kaiowa Location: Brazil. “In kaiowa I learn words that don’t sound KRENAC to me, what we still have of BORUM-------------------- I, baptized paulo sergio da silva in the apostolic roman catholic church, am now many names: paulo da silva_ paulo nazareth_ mohammad mohammed_ awa hae jeguata jopara_ awa jeguakai nreda_ kwamba kutembea_ mzungu-mwafrican_ muzungu nywele nyeusi_ socodkain_ tionrin_ ukuthi ukuhamba_ ..... we do not know if-how-when the body of NAZARETH CASSIANO DE JESUS_ NAZARETH DE JESUS _ mother of my mother [ANA GONÇALVES DA SILVA_ ANA GONÇALVES_ ANA DA SILVA], died there was a catholic, afro-religious or some indigenous funeral or if it was forgotten in a common grave or some ward of a public/private hospital or if she is still alive forgotten in some state asylum_. like my mother’s mother the body of NIZIO GOMES struck down by mercenary hands did not have a funeral and its destiny is unknown to relatives and the state:::: they do not call it a disappearance for political reasons and they seem to be oblivious to our story. I continue to struggle: no me olvides cuando yo sea un nombre importante!”Paulo Nazareth
Rainer Krause (Chile)
Photo: Cristina Calderon, Yagan Speaker, Puerto Williams, Isla Navarino, Chile. Photographer: R. Krause. RAINER KRAUSE | CHILE 1957, Hoyerhagen, Germany. Lives and works in Santiago de Chile, Chile Without title, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Yagan. Language: Yagan (or yamana, also referred to in the literature as, Háusi Kúta, Inchikut, Tekeenika, Yahgan or Yappu). Speaker: Cristina Calderón Location: Puerto Williams, Isla Navarino, Chile. Population: 8 (as of 2011)        Level of extinction: considered to be an isolated language on the verge of extinction. The Yagan people arrived six thousand years ago to the islands between the Beagle Channel and Cape Horn. They were a nomadic seafaring people, who migrated using canoes close to the coasts of the islands, building temporary huts on the beaches and along the coastline of these islands. There was no government, nor social hierarchy beyond family ties. Food consisted mainly of mussels, fish, seals and whale meat. After the 18th century seal and whale hunters gradually began to erode their food supply. In the 19th century this tribe fell victim to multiple illnesses brought by European seal hunters, missionaries and gold prospectors which spread in epidemic proportions throughout the region. Whereas in 1850 the Yagan population reached 3,000, at the beginning of the 20th century it was reduced to a mere two hundred. According to information obtained in 2011, only eight pure race Yagan are alive today.

Photo:
Yagan people's cemetery, Bahía Mejillones, Isla Navarino, Chile
Photographer: Rainer Krause

León David Cobo, María Cristina Rincón and Claudia Rodríguez (Colombia)
Photo: León David Cobo recording grandmothers Jansasoy Rosa and Maria Luisa Jansasoy, Kamentsa Putumayo people, Colombia, photographer León David Cobo LEÓN DAVID COBO | COLOMBIA 1973, Buga, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Lives and works in Colombia. Sound. MARÍA CRISTINA RINCÓN 1964, Bogotá, Colombia. Lives and works in Colombia. Research and editorship. CLAUDIA RODRÍGUEZ 1961, Bogotá, Colombia. Lives and works in Colombia. Editorship. De agua, viento y verdor, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar – ICBF, Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia, Fundalectura. Ethnic group: Sáliba. Language: Sáliba (endangered). Speaker: Agueda Pumené. Location: Department of Vichada and Casanare, Colombia. Population: 2.231. This piece is a compilation of stories for children from nine Colombian ethnic groups whose languages are on the verge of extinction. Languages include Kamëntša, Korebaju, Embera Chamí, Sáliba, Kokama, Yagua, Awá Pit, Ette Taara and Dumuna. The recorded audio in Sáliba language is entitled “Dada Kalamancha” (To Grandmother Kalamancha). To Grandmother Kalamancha Lolo lolo, lololololo Go to sleep little brother. Your grandmother is sick and your mother goes to visit her. She has not brought you with her, but she will return soon. I roast a topochito for you I give you majure so do not worry and sleep while waiting for your mom. Lolo, lololololó I ask for sleep to grandmother Kalamancha, the iguana that makes children fall asleep To Grandmother Kalamancha I ask leading sleep so that this baby can sleep.

Photo: León David Cobo recording the children Embera Chami in Risaralda, Colombia, photographer: Federico Bartelsman

Priscilla Monge (Costa Rica)
Photo: Maleku children in the community's school, Costa Rica, 2014 Photographer: Denia Blanco PRISCILLA MONGE | COSTA RICA 1968, Costa Rica. Lives and Works in San José, Costa Rica. Carajacaquijerrisuf, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Maleku            Language: Maleku. The word mal’eku means “person” and its plural is maleku marama “our people”. Speakers: Liliam Elizondo, Carajacaquijerrisuf and Denia Blanco. Location: The indigenous group Maleku lives outside the boundaries of the Caño Negro shelter in the Maleku Tribal Reserve which covers a surface of 2.743 hectares. Population: more than 600         Story: Translation by Lilliam Elizondo (the second speaker in the recording). “It had been a long time since we last went hunting tortoises and we travelled by canoe and slept, made fires, dried recently caught iguana on the firewood, coloured monkey and tortoise, but at daybreak we walked onwards and slept on the sand where once again, we dried iguana and tortoise. We also hunted another type of tortoise, smaller in size which we roasted, and fish, from which we made another type of food by wrapping it in leaves and roasting it on hot coals before eating it”.  
Fabiano Kueva (Ecuador)
Photo: Interior of a Siona house, territory of Siona-Zio Baim ethnic group, Ecuador. Photographer: Fabiano Kueva. FABIANO KUEVA | ECUADOR 1972, Quito, Ecuador. Lives and works in Quito, Ecuador. Without title, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Siona-Zio Baim Language: Siona. Speakers: Taita Humberto Piaguaje, Taita Pablo Maniguaje, Taita Sando Piaguaje. Location: Rio Putumayo, Amazonia, Ecuador and Colombia Recorded in the Commune Siona-Kichwa of San José de Wisuyá, Putumayo Canton, Sucumbios Province, Ecuador. Population: 400. The Zio Baim People, located for thousands of years on the banks of the Putumayo River, bases its vision of the world on the relationship between spirit and territory. Their life and relations – at every level and step – are guided by the sacred Yage plant, whose care and teaching is the responsibility of the Taitas elders of the Zio Baim people. Post production: Centro Experimental Oído Salvaje Studios, Quito, Ecuador; Production: Fabiano Kueva and the Experimantal Centre for Wild Sound; Acknoledgement: Alonso Aguinda, President of the Siona-Kichwa of San José de Wisuyá Commune and all the Taitas and Mamitas of the Putumayo Sionas-Zio Baim.

Photo:
Putumayo River, Amazonia, Ecuador and Colombia. Photographer: Fabiano Kueva

Mauricio Kabistan (El Salvador)
Photo: Nantzin Paula López, Náhuat speaker, Santo Domingo de Guzmán, El Salvador Photographer: The Fire Theory MAURICIO KABISTAN | EL SALVADOR 1980, Nicaragua. Lives and works in El Salvador Without title, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: Colectivo Tzuntecun Ejecat. Ethnic group: Nahua Pipil Language: Nawat. Location: El Salvador. Recorded in “La Casa de Al Lado”, San Salvador. Recording: Federico Krill  Speaker: Werner Hernández Translation: Werner Hernández Edition: Mauricio Kabistan. This recording is a reflection on the Nawat language of El Salvador and the massacre of 1932, narrated by Werner Hernández. Hernández, member of the Tzuntecun Ejecat Collective, is a native speaker of nawat and lives in the city of San Salvador. He has done research for more than 15 years on the nawat language in El Salvador in order to familiarize the younger generation with the language.

Photo:
El Escuco Cascade located in Santo Domingo De Guzman. Photographer: The Fire Theory

Sandra Monterroso (Guatemala)
Photo:Self-portrait of the artist Sandra Monterroso, wearing a San Juan Chamelco Hüipil, Alta Verapaz. Text in Maya Q’eqchi’ language (applied to the mouth): "Aa'o ink'a' nokoxik" (We are not leaving). SANDRA MONTERROSO | GUATEMALA1974, Guatemala. Lives and works in Guatemala and Vienna, Austria. Rokeb’ iq’/Viento, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Maya Q’equchi Language: Maya Speaker: Sandra Monterroso Location: Guatemala. Geographical Area: 24.662 km2 in the main nucleus and 29.582 km2 in the expanded area. Population: 852.012 inhabitants. Men: 428.410. Women: 423.602, according to the 11th National Census, 2002). “When the world began, the mountain was covered by peopleHe started to inquire where his sister had gone. Who has stolen her?Dew of the night. Purplish blue. Last night the thunder rumbled.Come hither and sweeten the blood.I have now prepared the necessary for dispensing with bad luck. “Where do you come from?” Wind without water, innocent, faultless, immaculate, without sin.Coiled, broken, speckled. Too deceptive: DarkThe bad spirit of the ball, it is best that it departReflection of light, as if done to one who is blindPut out our fire; water for washing, to purify the soul a little.The house is now empty. Silence.”

Self-portrait of the artist Sandra Monterroso, wearing a San Juan Chamelco Hüipil, Alta Verapaz. Text in Maya Q’eqchi’ language (applied to the mouth): "Aa'o ink'a' nokoxik" (We are not leaving).

Barbara Prézeau-Stephenson (Haiti)
Photo: Performance “The Freda Circle”, by B. Prézeau-Stephenson, about the construction of the creole women identity. Photographer: Josué Azor BARBARA PRÉZEAU-STEPHENSON | HAITI 1965, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Lives and works between France and Haiti Without title, 2015, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Originating from Haiti Language: Haitian Creole Speaker: Barbara Prézeau-Stephenson. Location: Haiti. Population: extinct. Level of extinction: total. Translation in Haitian creole of a Latin text which re-counts tales in Marcorix (a fusion between the Taino and Karib languages which were spoken on the island of Hispaniola). The recorded text is a translation in Haitian Creole of an excerpt from “Ecrit de frère Romain Pane, des antiquités des indiens, qu’il a recueillies avec soin en homme qui sait leur langue, par ordre de l’Amiral”. This small work, published in Venice in 1571, is taken from the History of Christopher Columbus written by Don Fernando Colombo, his son. Brother Romain Pane had studied the indigenous languages and reports the existence of a language spoken only by women which co-exists with a language which is practiced by men. The excerpt transcribes the mythical tales of the Taino and Karib religions which were practiced during the times of Columbus.  
Leonardo González (Honduras)
Photo: Tolupan community, Honduras. Photographer: Leonel Estrada. LEONARDO GONZÁLEZ | HONDURAS 1982, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Lives and Works in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Gocoy, Namaywuai, Toman, Our Final Breath, 2015, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Tolupan. Language: Tol. Speaker: Timoteo Cálix. Location: Montaña de la Flor, municipality of Orica. This municipality is located in the north of the department of Francisco Morazán and is surrounded by the Sierra de Misoco, which serves as a boundary between the departments of Francisco Morazán and Olancho, in the intermediate area of Honduras. My name is Timoteo Cálix and I am Tolupan. They say that our ancestors fled the region known as Santa Marta because they could no longer bear the exploitation and enslavement they were subjected to by the governor, for the production of maize, beans, sarsaparilla and other crops. Four families fled under the guidance of our first chief, Juan Martínez. From my father and my mother, I inherited the language and traditions which I passed on to my own family. “The Ritual of the Moon” is our most ancient ritual; we perform it at every eclipse of the moon. We gather to play the drums all night long, in order to scare away the dark until the light returns. We believe that if the moon disappears, the darkness can kill the whole of our tribe. Nowadays, the Tol language is dying out. Young Tolupans no longer wish to speak or practise it. They think that they have become civilized and it embarrasses them. Translation from Tol language Timoteo Cálix / Leonardo González

Photo:
Tolupan community, Honduras. Photographer: Leonel Estrada

Raúl Quintanilla (Nicaragua)
Miskitas. Photographer: Dorling Lopez Rivera. RAÚL QUINTANILLA | NICARAGUA1954, Managua, Nicaragua. Lives and works in Managua, Nicaragua. Lapta Yula, group of creative women, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Miskito              Language: Miskito. Location: Central America, from Cape Camarón, Honduras, to Río Grande, Nicaragua, along the Mosquito Coast, in the Western Caribbean Zone. Lapta Yula, the Guardians of the Sun, are a group of Miskito women from Nicaragua’s Caribbean coast, who are trying to preserve the coastal culture, language, history, myths and native traditions, but also to ensure that they get known beyond their place of origin. They receive support from the Creative Women, a group from the autonomous region of Nicaragua’s Atlántico Norte. The audio track presented comes from a theatrical work, Moskitia Pankira (Beautiful Mosquitia), staged by Alicia Pilarete with Lapta Yula at the University of Central America in Managua. Together with another six women from the Miskito coast, Peria Balderamos from the village of Uhri narrates the myths handed down by her ancestors, their childhood games, the poetry and stories from which their vision of the world is built up. The women also talk about the logging carried out by some transnational companies and describe the dire effects on the communities and environment of Mosquitia. “We are proud to talk about life in our villages, for example, the fishing, the logging problem, and the spirits who live within us,” explains Peria Balderamos. “They are part of our identity.”
Humberto Vélez (Panama)
Photo: Delegated performance and artistic intervention in Miss Panama contest, 2013 – 2015 Photographer: Fernando Bocanegra. MISS EDUCATIONAL delegated performance by Humberto Vélez. For the first time in history, a beauty pageant and its candidates actively participate in the creation of an artwork. Miss Education is not an easy performance to describe. It began as an artistic intervention in the “Miss Panama” contest and conceived specifically for Luis Camnitzer — renowned artist, pedagogue, and critic — during the international forum titled “VISITING MINDS. Radical Pedagogy: Art as Education," held in Panama City in May 2013.With Miss Education, Humberto Vélez wanted to confront artistic and intellectual prejudices by exploring elitist and common stereotypes of art, education, and beauty through the lens of mass media events and popular culture. Vélez wanted to challenge, in a playful but unsarcastic way, the concepts of contemporary art and education by mingling situations and attitudes of the sophisticated art world with a beauty pageant of great popular and media impact. For this purpose, Luis Camnitzer served as jury president of “Miss Panama” and personally chose a new "Miss" with the title of Miss Education.However, the performance began to take another shape... and then another. At this point, Miss Education has become a work-in-progress. Vélez has been invited to participate with Miss Education in several venues, such as the Montevideo, Havana, and Venice biennials — not as mere documentation of what happened in Panama, but as a delegated performance, i.e., as a “living work of art”. In each venue, the work acquires new modalities. For example, Jennifer Brown, Miss Education 2013, performed in the II Montevideo Biennial.Yomatzy Hazlewood, elected Miss Education 2014 by curator Gerardo Mosquera, is participating in the 56th International Art Exhibition – la Biennale di Venezia. She was also crowned Miss Panama and therefore ran for the title of Miss Universe. A medal-winning track meet runner and an English major in college, Hazlewood comes from a humble working-class family.For the opening of the IILA – Latin American Pavilion, Miss Education (among others performative actions during the Biennial) will present a short speech about stereotypes and preconceptions of Latin Americans that currently translate into a certain "pornoexoticism" in the arts. In her speech, she will include a message from the Gunas, a leading First Nation group from Panama, commenting about indigenous cultures and contemporary art.Miss Education has become a permanent title in the “Miss Panama” contest and one of the most coveted by the participants, who now make more emphasis on the importance of education and activism.Humberto Vélez, talks about this peculiar turn of events:In the past, after my performances ended, these remained alive for those whom I worked with, thanks to the empowerment of artistic experience…. However, with Miss Education this system — of collaboration, empowerment, and subsequent participation in social, political, and artistic arenas — has exploded. The forms and results it delivers are unknown to me. The work lives and takes on new meanings every day through others, who are not under my direction but independent of me.The project wanted to activate relations, complexities, strengths, and contradictions of Luis Camnitzer’s innovative pedagogical ideas, which equate art to education. Working with a beauty pageant in this way can also be read as a poignant comment on art competitions — which perpetuate the control of power in certain hands and divide the artists — and about the art world itself, with its strategies of legitimation, especially by the media and the market. Furthermore, this situation is applicable to everything else: sports, electoral politics, private education... They are all “contests” that manage huge amounts of capital and symbolic winners.In fact, contests are a constant in Vélez’s work. “What really interests me is the ceremony through its different manifestations: parades, contests, sports competitions, etc. I have used them extensively as artistic strategies. At the ceremony, members of a community look directly at each other and intertwine ancestral and current moments and emotions that speak about human nature”.What does Luis Camnitzer think about Miss Education? “A subversive act of the best kind…. I think it’s not so much a matter of bringing a cultural field within another, but of stressing the arbitrariness of the division. Mixing cultural castes and forcing them to work together to create a work that serves as a common denominator actually redefines our notions and cultural patterns, helping to create a real community.”Adrienne Samos & Humberto Vélez

Performance during the opening of the Pavilion of Latin America-IILA

Erika Meza and Javier López (Paraguay)
Photo:,Civito Montes, collaborator with the Sa´Pan community.Photographer: E. Meza / J. López ERIKA MEZA | PARAGUAY1968, San Pedro, Paraguay. Lives and works in Asunción, ParaguayJAVIER LÓPEZ1974, Havana, Cuba. Lives and works in Asunción, ParaguayWithout title, 2014, sound installationCourtesy: the artistsEthnic group: Sa´Pan or Enenlhit Language: Sanapana, language family Maskoy Speaker: Civito Montes, community leader and school teacherLocation: Paraguay. Western Region, Paraguayan Chaco, Presidente Hayes department Population: 785 (Census 2012)“I wish to tell a story in the Sanapana language. My name is Civito Montes and I live in the La Esperanza community, a department of Presidente Hayes. I teach young boys and girls at the local school. We have a history which begins with the ancestors of the Sanapana peoples and how they lived in former times in their ancestral homelands. Time has passed, yet we seek to bring to life, to regenerate, the history of the Sanapana language and its people. Our forefathers lived on different ranches at a time when the indigenous people knew nothing of the white-man’s food, eating such things as the meat of wild animals and fish, palm-marrows and honey. The Sanapana worked as farmhands on the ranches, riding horses, like ranchers. The place was called Estancia La Selva”.

Photo:
Sa´Pan community. Photographer: E. Meza/ J. López

José Huamán Turpo (Peru)
Photo: José Quispe, fron the Huachipaire ethnic group, during a ceremony invoking tutelar deities, Peru. Photographer: José Huamán Turpo. JOSÉ HUAMÁN TURPO | PERU 1959, Paucartambo, Peru. Lives and works in Cuzco, Peru. The Thrush and the worm, 2014, sound installation. Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic Group: Huachipaire. Language: Huachipaire. Speaker: Alberto Manqueripi. Location: Southern Peru tropical forest. The inhabitant of the Andean-Amazonian region, as an active, communicational subject, develops his/her own capacity of dialogue through technical audiovisual media, discovering the presence of the other by means of image and sound. In this way, the inhabitant becomes aware of his/her ability to fix ideas and values in a globalized world where his/her gaze, culture and society are present.  
Gustavo Tabares (Uruguay)
Photo: Nancy Ramos Boerr, Charrúa language speaker. Photographer: Gustavo Tabares GUSTAVO TABARES | URUGUAY 1968, Montevideo, Uruguay. Lives and works in Montevideo, Uruguay Charrúa, 2014, sound installation Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Charrúa. Language: Charrúa. Speaker: Nancy Ramos Boerr Location: Uruguay, Río de la Plata and southern Brazil. Population: 0. Level of extinction: Culturally extinct. Although they are considered extinct, there are a significant, though inexact number of descendants of several tribes living within Uruguayan territory (Charrúa, Chaná, Guenoa, Guaraní, Bohanes, Yaros etc.) who, in reality, comprise 4.5% of the population, according to a household survey performed by the National Institute of Statistics (2006). In it, 115.118 people identified themselves as being descended from indigenous peoples. Furthermore, quite a significant number of Charrúa descendants live in the provinces of Entre Rios, Santa Fé and Chaco; as well as in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In Argentina 4.511 people identified themselves as Charrúa, none of whom were living in communities. Presently, it is calculated that in Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina there are about between 160.000 and 300.000 Charrúa descendants, all of whom are of mixed race. In the recording the Uruguayan speaker tells numbers, plants as well as body parts and family relations in Charrúa language.  
Ellen Slegers (Special Participation)
Photo: Joaquim Suruí, cacique from Gabgir ethnic group, father of Uraan, 23.1.2014 Photographer: Ellen Slegers. ELLEN SLEGERS | SPECIAL PARTICIPATION 1972, Frankfurt, Germany. Lives and works in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Meetings With the White Man in His Time, 2014, sound installation Courtesy: the artist. Ethnic group: Paiter Suruí Language: Paiter Suruí. Speaker: Uraan Anderson Suruí Location: State of Rondônia, Brazil. Description: Extract taken from Paiter Suruí mythology “Amõ Anar Segah” (A story about contact with white people), narrated by Uraan Anderson Suruí. This “story of contact with white people” read to us by Uraan Anderson talks about the problematic contact, which brought with it hardship and, frequently, death. It enables us to see through the eyes of the Paiter Suruí the story of the occupation by the white people, of the destruction of indigenous territories and their way of life. The repetition of these rhythms and sounds which imitate the cries of animals transmit to us the historical voice of the now extinct Paiter Suruí.  

Photo: Gabgir ethnic group,
Photographer: Ellen Slegers

Credits: Story

“Voces Indígenas” (Indigenous Voices)
Pavilion of Latin America – IILA
56. International Art Exhibition – la Biennale di Venezia

May 9th – November 22nd 2015
Isolotto, Arsenale – 30122 Venice

Commissioner
Sylvia Irrazábal

Curator
Alfons Hug

Deputy curator
Alberto Saraiva

Participants:

ARGENTINA
Sofia Medici e Laura Kalauz

PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA
Sonia Falcone and José Laura Yapita

BRAZIL
Adriana Barreto
Paulo Nazareth

CHILE
Rainer Krause

COLOMBIA
León David Cobo, María Cristina Rincón and Claudia Rodríguez

COSTA RICA
Priscilla Monge

ECUADOR
Fabiano Kueva

EL SALVADOR
Mauricio Kabistan

GUATEMALA
Sandra Monterroso

HAITI
Barbara Prézeau-Stephenson

HONDURAS
Leonardo González

NICARAGUA
Raúl Quintanilla

PANAMA
Humberto Vélez

PARAGUAY
Erika Meza and Javier López

PERU
José Huamán Turpo

URUGUAY
Gustavo Tabares

SPECIAL PARTICIPATION
Ellen Slegers

INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER
Goethe - Institut

MAIN SPONSOR
Oi Futuro, Rio de Janeiro
artEDU Stiftung
Fundación Bienal de Montevideo, Uruguay

WITH THE PATRONAGE OF
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship – Argentine Republic
Ministry of Culture of Colombia
Embassy of Colombia in Italy
Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar - ICBF, Colombia
Ministry of Culture and Youth of Costa Rica
Embassy of Costa Rica in Italy
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Human Mobility of Ecuador
Ministry of Culture and Heritage of Ecuador
Embassy of Ecuador in Italy
Ministry of Culture of Haiti
Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores y Cooperación Internacional, Gobierno de la República de Honduras
SEDIS – Dirección de Pueblos Indígenas y Afrohondureños DINAFROH, Honduras
Presidency of Oriental Republic of Uruguay
Ministry of Education and Culture of Uruguay
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay
Ministry of Tourism and Sport of Uruguay
Municipality of Montevideo, Uruguay

WITH THE SUPPORT OF
Museo de Arte y Diseño Contemporáneo, San José, Costa Rica
Centro Experimental Oído Salvaje, Ecuador
Museo MARTE, San Salvador, El Salvador
MARTE Contemporáneo, San Salvador, El Salvador
Escuela Experimental de Arte en Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Museo para la Identidad Nacional, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Galerie Ernst Hilger, Vienna, Austria
Mendes Wood DM, Sao Paolo, Brazil
Cristina Guerra Contemporary Art, Lisbon, Portugal
Fundalectura – Colombia
Estilo, Honduras
Banco de la República Oriental del Uruguay
Mario Cader-Frech

TECHNICAL SPONSOR
Neroarchitecture
iGuzzini
ICI Servizi Srl
Publish
Illycaffè
Sale e Pepe Group
Omina Romana
Visiva
Italia Cargo Srl

EXHIBITION DESIGN
Paola Pisanelli Nero

SET-UP
ICI Servizi Srl

MEDIA ENGINEERING
Eidotech

PRODUCTION ASSISTANT
Roberta Forlini
Martina Spagna

PRESS OFFICE
Francesco Accolla
Esperanza Anzola
Loredana Riccardo

CURATOR ASSISTANT
Irene Müller-Lohidoy

CATALOGUE

EDITED BY
Sylvia Irrazábal

DESIGN
Neroarchitecture

TRANSLATION
Julian Bees
Silvia Leta
Patricia Unzain

PRINTED BY
www.publish.st

THANKS TO
Claire Breukel
Susanna Regazzoni


For additional information
Cultural Department IILA
Ph: +39 0668492.225/246 – fax +39 066872834
s.culturale@iila.org / www.iila.org

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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