Rezan Has Museum Sılent Wıtnesses: From Neolıthıc Perıod to the Seljuks

Rezan Has Museum

Rezan Has Museum has conducted a collective work aiming to present a seamless historical process with works covering a broad period from the Prehistoric Age to the Seljuk Empire. In the exhibition, besides displaying the works pertaining to various civilizations that has settled in and around Anatolia between 6500 B.C.- 1500 A.D. chronologically, they are also exhibited thematically within their own historical processes with arms, figurines, idols and lighting tools. In the exhibition, a bronze bathtub, Urartian pins, obsidian arrow tips, harnesses for horses, devotional sculptures, oil-lamps and terra-cotta sculptures may be seen besides the authentic works that have never been exhibited before. 

Neolithic Period (9000-5500 BCE)
One of the most important features of the NeolithicPeriod, also named as the New Stone Age, was man cultivating plants and starting agriculture. The people who lived in Anatolia were first hunter-gatherers, after cultivation of land they started to be dependant on soil. In time simple, big and small village settlements started to emerge. Besides cultivation of plants certain animals were domesticated which helped men in his daily life. In the light of researches conducted until present day we know that in the early phases of the Neolithic, although people were settled they have not yet discovered the pottery making techniques (forming and baking). They met their needs by carving vessels out of wood and stone. In the course of time farming and stockbreeding developed; crops like wheat, barley and lentil were also included in the agriculture. In the centuries to come monochrome pottery that was shaped by hand was made with thick walls and simple forms.Towards the end of the Neolithic Period as dry farming activity increased, pottery production developed. The produced ceramics were now thinner, finely-baked vessels with brown, grey and beige colors. There were also redburnished wares over cream slip. Animal shaped and human-headed vessels were first observed during this period,too. Along with the change in lifestyle changes arouse in the belief system as well. Instead of painting hunting scenes, reproductive scenes became more common. Mother-goddess faith got to be widespread and the fertility of females was in the foreground now.

Terracotta jar with pierced lug handles.

Terracotta miniature jar with small holes.

Stone bowl with incised linear motifs.

Chalcolithic Period (5500-3500 BCE)
Right after the Neolithic Period, the Chalcolithic, in other words the Copper-Stone Age was experienced in Anatolia. Such a name was given because besides stone utensils, copper was used as well in making certain utensils. In a way this was the transition period from the Stone Age to the metal ages. Just like in the Neolithic, many new things were experienced in this period. The village life underwent a new transition period and established the foundation of the City- State-Empire socio-economical system which was to come up later. Shifting to wet agriculture brought about the need for a better organized society. Organized manpower meant surplus; the storing and keeping of this material caused a more complex social structure. Thus new professions and branches were needed. By the increasing population and the developing society a ruling class emerged. Meanwhile the religious aspects were united with the leadership capacity. Besides the prestigious edifices to meet the needs of this newly established ruling class, monumental religious architecture and public buildings were also built. In parallel with the advancement of agriculture cities also grew larger and became more prosperous. A society comprised of familial relations was now taken over by a political organization which developed systematically in the regional base. With the Chalcolithic Period Anatolia became a more crowded land where organized societies started to live. Hence it was divided into regions depending on the differences in culture: The East, the Southeast Anatolia and the Çukurova Plain were more under the Mesopotamian cultural sphere; whereas the Western and Central Anatolia, though in some parts showed distinctive local features, were under the influence of the Aegean and the Balkanic cultures.

Terracotta carinated jar with short and incised lines on a raised rope motif on the carina.

The Bronze Age (3500-1200 BCE)
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper and usually tin and hence the period received its name. It was divided into three periods as Early, Middle and Late (Bronze Ages). In the first phase of the Bronze Age the settlements were in the form of fortified, organized, liberal city-states within which temples and governmental buildings were also erected. The discovery of bronze was added on top of the previous discoveries or inventions i.e. farming, stockbreeding, textile and pottery production. This enabled the production of more powerful weapons and finer ornaments. Trading capacity increased and a broad tradingweb was established from Mesopotamia to the Aegean and the Balkans. The Middle Bronze Age began at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The most distinctive feature of the period was the close and organized contacts established with the Mesopotamian civilizations resulting with the introduction of writing to Anatolia. During this period together with the “Trading Colonies” writing was used in everyday life from contracts to trading and from matrimonial documents to adoption papers. The Assyrian traders exported tin and fabric to Anatolia and imported silver, gold and processed copper in return. By the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC a central, political power was formed in Anatolia, the Hittite Kingdom. Aleppo in northern Syria was conquered; Babylonia at the southern plains of Mesopotamia was looted (1595 BC) and the country of Arzawa in western Anatolia was captured. After the vast territory it gained the Hittite Kingdom reached the level of Empire during the Late Bronze Age (1450-1190 BC). Towards the end of the 13th century a sudden collapse took place within the Empire. The capital Hattusa was demolished after a severe fire. It is asserted that the Kaskas who migrated from the Black Sea Mountains were responsible of this catastrophe. We do not have too much information about this last period when migration activities to Anatolia started from the Caucasus and western Anatolia and turbulence was suffered because of drought and famine.

Terracotta model of a temple. Single-storey at front side while it is two-storey at back side. There are figures as busts at windows. Also there are standing relief figures at doors.

Bronze beaker with globular shaped body and flat base.

Terracotta model of a cart with an animal relief on the front side. The model has also holes for wheels.

Terracotta caliche with a conical and slightly carinated body with triangular motifs

Terracotta triplet small jars with incised linear motifs.

Terracotta miniature jar with a lid with incised linear and punctuated motifs. A pottery of Yortan.

Terracotta miniature jar with a lid. A pottery of Yortan.

Terracotta rhyton in the shape of a bird decorated with black and red upside down V's and grids

Terracotta jug with a conical body and flat base and trefoil mouth. Linear and zigzag painted patterns

Iron Age (1190-330 BCE)
After the political collapse of the Hittite Empire towards 1190 BC, many principalities emerged in Anatolia. This was a new, multi-layered political situation lacking a central authority. During this period Anatolia was exposed to migrations from all directions. Kaskas, the ruthless enemies of the Hittites, took control of all Central Anatolia north of River Halys. Northwestern Anatolia hosted many communities who migrated from the Balkans. These people have first settled in the Thrace, Propontis and the Dardanelles region. Yet they moved on to the central parts of Anatolia. The Muski people arriving via the Caucasus settled at the west part of East Anatolia and the Aramians (a sect of Semitic origin) moved in to the Southeastern Anatolia. Use of iron became widespread. By the end of the 9th century BC all weapons and many of the necessary instruments were made of iron. During the 1st millennium BC new central powers started to show their presence with great armies and wars. The Urartians in East Anatolia; Phrygians, Lydians and the Greek city-states in the Central and Western Anatolia; the Hittites, Luwis, Aramians and other local communities in Southeastern Anatolia each formed regional kingdoms. This was the period when big wars, great massacres and forced migration activities took place. It was also the period when many developments and changes were encountered especially in metallurgy and architecture. New societies, languages and inscriptions now diversified and enriched the ethnic and social structure of Anatolia. From the 6th century onwards both the increasing raids of the nomadic Scythians and Cimmerians and the military campaigns of the Persian people i.e. the Persians and the Medes prepared the end of the Iron Age Kingdoms of Anatolia.

Rectangular model of a city with high pedestal. Two sides of the model is raised as city walls.

Terracotta beak spouted pitcher whose surface painted with geometric patterns.

Terracotta rhyton in the shape of a mountain goat.

A horseshoe-shaped fibula of bronze.

Urartians: A Civilization Unique to Anatolia
Between the 9th and 7th centuries BC, the Urartian Kingdom dominated mainly in Eastern Anatolia, in the vast land from the Transcaucasus in the north, including the lakes Cildir and Sevan, to the Anti-Taurus Mountains in the south; and from the Lake Urmia in the east to the Euphrates River in the west and inland Iran in the northwest. The capital of the Kingdom was Tuspa (today’s Van). The state was governed by a central and theocratic regime. The king was the ultimate authority. He was also the head-priest and the representative of God on earth. The state was governed by the many bureaucrats within the structure. The administration of the provinces was obtained by the governors appointed from the central government. The Urartians made vital investments in public work both at the capital and the other provinces. Amongst the public work accomplished we may count the aqueducts and the irrigation canals to water the dry land. They also established road systems between the cities in the vast and rough territory in order to bring order and provide security. From the Urartian civilization many architectural edifices have survived to the present day like the many fortresses, cities, aqueducts, dams, canals, highways and monumental rock-cut tombs. Besides the aforementioned main units, the capital Tuspa also contained open-air altars and multiroomed, monumental rock-cut tombs built for the afterlife of the king. Due to the presence of rich metal deposits in the Urartian territory, metalwork was an advanced art. The metal objects were mainly made of bronze as well as gold, silver and iron. Helmets, shields, quivers, belts, pectorals, pendants, chariot accessories and harnesses were all made of bronze most of the time and they were usually decorated with embossing and incised figures.

A thin plaque of bronze formed as a protective sheet. Two faces with pointed chin and big, almond-shaped eyes decorated in relief.

Image of a group of ornamental pins.Decorative pins constitute an important group among Urartian jewelry types. Urartians developed and diversified the earlier tradition of decorative pins and added new products to the repertoire. Urartian decorative pins are generally cast. Bronze is the most preferred metal, followed by silver, gold, gold-plate and bone.

A belt composed of five fragments. All the fragments were attached together and the missing parts were completed. The outer border is perforated with small string holes with short gaps between them. A studded molding delimits the outer border of the decoration scene. The figures on the decoration surface proceed toward each end from the center of the belt, in three rows of similar type, one on top of the other. The figures were generally arranged symmetrically. The figures and cavalry on the hunter vehicle hunt mythological creatures as well as lion and bull. Hunting chariots and cavalry are hunting lions, bulls and mythological creatures. In addition, some mythological creatures are depicted hunting their own kind. The figures are placed alternately one after another, in a line. Three-foot soldiers with hunting equipment are placed on top of each other at the right end of the belt. Three winged divine figures with hunting equipment are placed on top of each other at the left end of the belt. A total of 99 figures are depicted in 33 successive columns on the belt. There is a loop-shaped buckle at the right end of the belt.

Urartian jug, jar and caliches made of terracotta.

The Greek Period in Anatolia (1500-30 BCE)
Within the frame of Migrations in the Aegean, the Dorian invasion from northern Greece to the south has ended the Achaean-Mycenaean civilization. For a certain period the Dorians settled in the Peloponnesus, Crete, southwestern shores of Anatolia and the adjacent islands. Later as the Ionians settled in the central part of Western Anatolia (Asia Minor) c. 10th century BC thus the region was called Ionia. During both colonization periods many cities were established on the western coast of Anatolia. Herodotus mentions in his book the 12 Ionian cities. To name a few we may count Miletus, Ephesus, Teos and Phokaia. Beginning from the 8th century onwards some of these city-states increased their power in the region. These were liberal city-states and they were governed by monarchy. The cities comprised of a central area (acropolis) where the governmental units and religious buildings were erected within the city walls and the surrounding settlement area for the citizens. In certain examples the settlement area was also surrounded by city walls. Though the governmental regime was monarchy at the beginning, in time it gave way to oligarchy, and from 7th century onwards the city-states were governed by archons; selected noblemen from aristocratic families. From the 6th century onwards the Ionian City-States had to face long-term struggles with the Persians. The 200 years Persian struggle and invasion in Anatolia was ended by Alexander the Great’s expedition to the East. During Alexander’s Asian Expedition (336-323 BC), which he conducted by an army comprised of Macedonian and Greek soldiers, the Greek culture infused greatly with the countries in the east and likewise the eastern culture had impacts on the Greek culture.

The skyphos painted with a bird whose body decorated with grids and diamond-shaped motifs filled with grids.

Alabastron decorated with a panther painting. Terracotta.

Small type of flask used to contain perfume or oil. This aryballos painted with vertical black, cream and red bands.

Wine-jug. Three figures form the center scene. At the very left, a dressed woman figure holding a hand-fan facing left. At the center, a naked figure is holding a strigilis and facing left. At the very right a dressed man is holding an object and facing toward the naked figure.

A type of one-handled pottery that has a narrow body and used to contain especially olive-oil. This lekythos painted with a cavalry, who is wearing a hat and holding a spear, at the center. Above, a grill-shaped and a meander band.

A type of two-handled wine-drinking cup with a shallow body. This kylix is set on a high stemmed pedestal with a lip gently bented outwards while the handles bented upwards. Undecorated.

Lebes gamikos is a special wedding ritual pottery. This high-stemmed bowl has a ribbed body with high handles and a lid.

This skyphos all-black and undecorated except for the seven palmettes incised at the center of the inside of the cup.

Roman Period in Anatolia (30 BCE-476 AD)
At the beginning Rome was just the name of a city built in central Italy in the 8th century BC. Via its successful expansion policy it first became a Republic, and then an Empire. Rome’s first relation with Anatolia started when it gained the territory of the Pergamene Kingdom in the 2nd century BC. In 129 BC Rome formed a state named “Asia” at the same lands which used to belong to the Pergamene Kingdom. After the battles which took place in the 1st century BC between the Romans and the king of Pontus Mithridates VI, Pontus, Bithynia, Cilicia, Galatia, Lycia and Pamphylia became provinces. Especially in the 2nd century AD Anatolia lived its Golden Age under the Roman Rule, too. In the proceeding centuries as its territory has expanded vastly the Empire started to have problems in ruling its land. Its economy has also weakened significantly. By the Diocletian Reform in the 3rd century AD the land of the Empire was divided into many provinces. In the 4th century AD the old city of Byzantium was developed and reconstructed by the emperor Constantine the Great. Hence the city was named after him, as Constantinople, and it became the second capital of the Empire. When Rome fell after the northern attacks of the Goths and the Germanic tribes in the 5th century AD, Constantinople started to rule the Empire alone and for almost a millennium.

Terracotta jar with a lid. Shoulders are wide, body is narrowing down to the bottom and terminates with a ring base.

Bronze oil churn with a lid. The back side of the lid, which is connected to a long handle, is in form of a plastic bird. The tip of the handle is in form of a plane tree leaf.

Jug made of lead.

Bronze jug.

Bronze bathub or sarchophagus with four half-circular riveted handles.Forged.

Marble stele decorated with a full-dressed woman with one arm bent towards her chest and one leg stepped forward. Inscription on the lower part saying "Zosime (built) this stele in memory of her (husband/brother?) Rhodan".

Glass pitcher

Bronze patera.

The Byzantine Period 
The Byzantine Empire ruled for about eleven hundred years from the 4th century until the mid-15th century AD. Its most expanded boundaries were during the 6th century. It comprised of all the land around the Mediterranean plus Thrace, the Balkans, Crimea and some parts of Russia. The Byzantine emperors thought of themselves as the successors of the Roman emperors and always used the title “ruler of Romans.” Yet modern day historians accept the Byzantines as a separate historical asset and name this empire as “the Byzantine Empire” in regard to its capital, Byzantium (Byzantion). Due to its strategic position the Roman emperor Constantine I had chosen this city as a second capital in the east, after Rome. The city provided a passage to trading in the Black Sea; it was also the spot where two continents met; having been surrounded by water it could easily be defended against attacks and also keeping the advantageous situation of the Golden Horn in mind this mediocre city of the Empire was flourished. With glorious festivities the city was blessed on May 11, 330 and the Christian belief was liberated in the city which now bore the name Constantinople. This date is accepted as the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. Its end was determined by the Ottomans led by Mehmed the Conqueror when he conquered the city on May 29, 1453. The Byzantine civilization was an important power and a world-state during the Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. It was an Empire on the east side of the Mediterranean, governed by the state and juristic systems inherited from the Roman Empire. Although its roots nourished from the Greek and Roman cultures, it surely was affected by the beliefs, ideas and artwork of the previous and contemporary cultures of Anatolia, Persia, the Balkans, Europe, Black Sea, the Aegean and the Mediterranean. Even after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul), the Byzantine culture continued to influence the Ottomans, the Europeans and the Russians.

An ampulla of terracotta with two eyelets and with relief decoration of a big cross standing on a column base placed in an archway.

A relic case made of lead, marble and bone with a cross carved on it.

Necklace formed with gold, agate and glass and a pendant cross.

Polykandelon made of bronze. Encircled by an inscription saying "†ὑπερὶ εὐχῆς Θεοκτίστου Κυριάδου. / For the healt of Theoktistos, son of Kyriades".

Polykandelon made of bronze and decorated with cricles and a cross at the center.

Talisman in the shape of a mirror back of bronze. There is an incised decoration of a mythological figure in a circle and bird figrues each placed in seperated u-shaped divisions encircling the circle at the center.

Lead relic case. Undecorated.

Talisman of a circle form made of bronze and lead. There are various symbols carved on it.

Talisman mould made of stone. There is a schematized man figure in a circle at the center.

Bronze ritual cross.

Cross made of silver and glazed with gold with carved decoration of Jesus Christ at the center, Virgin Mary at the left arm and Ioannes Prodromos at the right arm. There are inscriptions above each figure saying "IC XC / Ihtus Christus= Christ the Redeemer above the Christ; Meter Theou= Mother of God above Mary and Ioannes Prodromos above Ioannes".

Terracotta bowl with incised fish decoration.

Copper bucket with handle and with an inscription on it saying "ὑγιένουσα χροῦ, κύρα, ἐν πόλλοις σε χρόνοις./ Use this lady, in good helath for many years".

Bronze patera with a deep body and hand folded back.

The Seljuk Period / Islamic Period
The Seljuks started to be politically and culturally effective in Anatolia since the beginning of 11th century. During the Seljukid Period, various new techniques were applied in metalwork and the motifs on the objects produced reflected traces of different cultures. Especially the workshops in Konya and the region of the Artuqids were the main centers of metal art. Among the Seljukid metal objects many of them were functional like handled mirrors, incense burners, bowls, perfume bottles, washbowls and trays. During this period tile work also developed immensely. Yet the same development cannot be observed in ceramic arts. The colors used in ceramic production were mostly yellow, brown and tones of green. The composition of Seljuk and Byzantine ceramics show parallels. Amongst the most frequently used figures in the Seljukid ceramics we see birds, hunters, geometric and floral patterns. Besides metal and ceramic the Seljuks were highly advanced in the arts of tile work, plaster work and miniature as well. The most frequently used material in architecture was stone. Hence stone masonry was quite progressed, too. Other than these, woodcarving and tapestry were the two advanced arts to reflect the Seljukid taste.

Perfume flaks made of bronze. Rectangular body. Cylindrical necked. Decorated with incised motifs.

Perfume flaks made of cut glass. Rectangular body. Four-feeted.

Perfume flaks made of bone. Rectangular body. Four-feeted. Long,cylindrical necked. Decorated with incised circular motifs.

Bowl made of glass with blue amorph dots at the belly.

A plate with a rooster figure made of bronze and silver. Conical handle is placed at the center of the plate and formed as a rooster.

Bronze bowl with floral motifs.

Enchanted necklace of a square form decorated with a cat, a scorpion and a woman figure holding an object with her two hands.

Lock made of bronze with a key fused into the body.

Terracotta water flask. Unglazed. Decorated with floral motifs in relief.

Terracotta bowl with turqouise motifs inside.

Terracotta glazed bowl decorated with floral motifs and radial turqouise lines inside.

Human Depictions in Anatolia
The first depictions of humans ever known in Anatolia were found in the Karain Cave. A human head incised at the end of an animal rib bone is from the Upper Palaeolithic Period. During the proceeding period, the Protoneolithic, human depictions are only observed on the walls of Beldibi Cave, an under-rock shelter. Since the Neolithic Period human depictions in Anatolia increased significantly in number. In the recently excavated sites like Göbekli Tepe and Nevali Çori, besides the two or three dimensional examples found on stones from the Aceramic Period of the Neolithic, human shaped clay figurines were also produced at Çayönü and Cafer Höyük. During the proceeding period, the Early Neolithic, these objects gained a special feature depicting mostly women. The use of women in figurines mainly relied on the mother goddess belief in Anatolia. This belief was reflected on the figurines by forming parallels with the fertility of women and the abundance in nature. These naturalistic female figurines all have exaggerated breasts and thighs in order to emphasize fertility; thus abundance and prosperity. After the Early Neolithic Period the human depictions continued to be naturalistic in style and aesthetic in form yet now only females were depicted in three dimensional forms. In other words the naturalism of female figurines has reached its acme period in the Late Neolithic. After this period abstract figurines started to take place. This change increased even more during the Early Chalcolithic Period. Yet in the Late Chalcolithic Period figurines gained the features of an idol. The change was more rapid towards the end of the Late Chalcolithic and reached its acme period at Early Bronze Age I. After this phase details of physical and facial appearance of the figurines were mostly not depicted. The transition from figurines to idols has taken its final form especially during the Early Bronze Age I and the same features were continued until the end of this period. As parallels to the change in appearance the materials used in producing female figurines also changed. The terracotta figurines were replaced by light colored marble idols as observed from the many examples found especially in Western Anatolia. This status continued through the entire Early Bronze Age I.

Marble idol of a mother goddess. Mother goddess idols are the reflections of the fertility. In the ancient world, these figurines were the main emblems symbolizing woman's fertility, her social status ans sanctity which may still be attributed to her. In general,, breasts and hips are depicted in an exaggrated manner. There are also depictions of goddess figurines shown while giving birth. It is obvious that the figurines depicted with leopards on both sides, as symbol power, represent a holy power which dominates nature. Fertility, the descendance of the line or the symbols of plenty are the concepts that have shaped the faith in the manner of goddess in Anatolia, reflecting a tradition thousands of years old. Together with the farming societies appeared in Anatolia for the first time, this concept is identified with the fertility of the earth. Woman's fertility was matched with the fruitfulness of the earth. These figurines, especially known by the examples coming from Neolithic and Chalcolithic layers in centers like Çatalhöyük and Hacılar, were schematized in time and continued to be used.

Schematized mother goddess idol sits in a cross-legged position.

Pendantive idol of silver of a ring form with mounted dots all around the body.

Marble idol consisting of a head and a body without arms and legs. The head is in the form of a horizontal eight with very big almond-shaped eyes and thick eyebrows.

Twin idols made of lead.

Terracotta idol without legs. Arms very short. Decorated with a cross-incised band motif.

Statuettes of quadruple gods made of bronze. Wearing long, triangular hats and dresses. Big-eyed.

A standing male figurine of lead with two small wings. He's wearing a decorated cap and a decorated long dress. Arms extending two sides. Eyes are exagratted.

Statuette of a standing deity figure. Arms upraised.

Terracotta statuette head. Head of a man wearing a triangular cap ornate with red lattice-shaped lines. Facial elements are exaggerated. Chin is alongated.

Bronze figurine of a standing woman with big, almond-shaped eyes. Upraised her hand towards her chest. Full-dressed.

Bronze African figurine wearing a cloak and seated cross-legged on a base.

Terracotta statuette of a reading lady. An open book on her lap.

Terracotta statuette of standing and half-dressed Aphrodite and two small standing Eros in a niche. Aphrodite uprises her two arms; one towards her head and one holding an object.

Triple Hekate Stautettes made of marble. Full dressed, long haired with hat.

Naked Aphrodite statuette with a small Eros standing by her.

Standing male statuette of limestone. Wearing a hat and holding a sword.

Terracotta theater mask representing a male character from ancient tragedy.

Illumination Instruments
The discovery of fire was the biggest step forward in civilization for mankind. After the heating and the illuminating features of fire were discovered men could easily invent the devices necessary in daily life. Besides their heating function the fire lit in the caves and cottages also enabled cooking thus food became more easily edible and tasty. The fire also lit the surrounding and protected them from the attacks of wild animals. At certain time periods during the day in places where the sun and moonlight is not sufficient controlled fires were lit and instruments to be used for such a purpose were produced. In a short while besides the easy solutions like torches, firelighters etc. less dangerous and controlled illumination instruments were produced. The first lamps were created by burning animal fats and vegetable oils within mollusk shells via a wick. In a short while they were made of terracotta. Oil lamps were the earliest illumination gadgets and were left at temples as votive instruments and they also accompanied the dead in their graves. According to the results obtained from the archaeological studies, the illumination instruments were used around the Mediterranean basin, in Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Greece and Anatolia as early as the 2nd millennium BC. These were small terracotta bowls which held the oil and the wick within. During the Hellenistic and Roman Period serial production of lamps were made possible by using the potter’s wheel and molding. On these lamps there were the depictions of historical characters, scenes from daily life, erotic, mythological, and hunting scenes, and also animal figures and floral compositions were made all in relief form. In the Christian belief -whether it be from the sun, or a candle or a lamp- “flame or light” symbolized Jesus, who has united with God and the eternity of Eden. Besides their daily usage especially during the religious ceremonies held in churches illumination elements were formed according to a certain pattern bound with the architecture of the edifice. They were charged by symbolic meanings. Oil lamps were still in use during the Seljuk Period and they were often made of terracotta or bronze.

An oil lamp of terracotta with a decoration of a big bird on diskus and floral motifs encircling it.

Candelabrum made of bronze with small holes and incised floral decorations at the bottom.

Oil lamp of bronze in the form of a mouth-open African face.

Bronze oil lamp with a lid. Handle is formed as tree branch.

Terracotta oil lamp. Turquoise glazed. Sun motif on diskus.

Men have produced weapons for various reasons; primarily to win the battle against nature, to protect them from any kind of danger and to protect the land they owned. Men started to produce simple weapons made of stone to protect themselves from wild animals, to feed, to hunt and occasionally to solve the disputes amongst each other. Usually they chipped off the stones found in nature by even harder stones or simply used the stone pieces which could easily be shaped into a weapon. First examples of weapon technology were the axes and chisels made of stone and obsidian. Copper was discovered during the Chalcolithic Period (5800-3400 BC) and through the alloying of copper and tin bronze was obtained; a metal widely used during the Bronze Age (3400-1200 BC) where more effective weapons with sharp edges were procured. The diversity of weapons in the Bronze Age can easily be observed in axes with helve holes, flat and eyed, and flat forms. Daggers, blades, spears, arrowheads and various sized swords are among the widely used weapon types in this period. All weapons were produced by casting in different techniques. During the Early Bronze Age weapons such as spearheads, daggers, blades, swords, arrowheads and axes were cast in sand, clay or stone molds. Daggers, spearheads and arrowheads must have been roughly formed in sand or clay molds at first and then they were given their final shapes through cold or warm forging process.

Bronze mace head of double axe-head form with elongated stipes. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.

Bronze mace head of tube form with elongated stipes. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.

Stone polished mace head of circular form. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.

Bronze helmet

Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.

Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.

Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.

Bronze sword.

Mould of a shaft hole axe. Bronze

Plugged flat axe.

Bronze axe with a shaft hole.

Bronze socket spear head.

Bronze spear head

Bronze axe.

Bronze flat axe.

Bronze axe.

Bronze dagger.

Bronze butted spear head.

Credits: Story

Project Manager: Zeynep Çulha

Academic Advisory Board: Prof. Önder Bilgi, Prof.Gülgün Köroğlu, Assoc.Prof Rafet Çavuşoğlu, Gülcan Kongaz, Haluk Perk

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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