A Centennial Exhibition
How did the men and women who lived through America’s World War I view their experiences of wartime service and sacrifices on the home front? A century later, we ask viewers to set aside modern assumptions and look at the war through the eyes of Americans who lived it. View this print on the Gilder Lehrman website.
Newsreel footage captures headlines of war and early troop training. Film courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.
On April 2, Wilson asked Congress to declare war and they did so on April 6, 1917. A small number of advocates of progressive reform opposed the war. Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin was one of six US senators to vote against war, which he argued only served the "war machine." View President Wilson's message to Congress on the Gilder Lehrman website.
Letters and diaries written by soldiers reflect their day-to-day concerns over food, disease, boredom, and army discipline, echoing letters written during previous wars. Eager to reassure their families about their safety and mindful of military censorship, few described the brutality and unprecedented carnage of the war in their letters.
Ella Jane Osborn, an army nurse, was stationed in an evacuation hospital in France. In her diary she recorded daily events as well as the suffering of the soldiers under her care. Find out more about Ella Jane Osborn.
In addition to her notes about the men under her care and events in France, Osborn jotted down two popular World War I poems, “In Flanders Fields,” by Canadian surgeon Lt. Col. John D. McCrae, and “The Answer,” by Lt. J. A. Armstrong of Wisconsin.
This film from the National Archives shows soldiers on leave during the war -- dancing, bicycle riding, sightseeing in the company of YMCA and Red Cross workers.
More than 350,000 African Americans enlisted and served in segregated units. W. E. B. Du Bois, a leader of the African American movement for civil rights, had opposed black participation in the “white man’s war.” After the United States entered the war, however, he wrote in The Crisis:
The 93rd Division, the focus of this film, was an African American unit which included the Harlem Hellfighters. Film courtesy of The National Archives and Records Administration.
Scenes of enlistment and Red Cross and troop deployment from The National Archives and Records Administration.
Listen to the wartime hit "Over There" from the Library of Congress
Over there, over there,
Send the word, send the word over there
That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming
The drums rum-tumming everywhere.
So prepare, say a prayer,
Send the word, send the word to beware -
We'll be over, we're coming over,
And we won't come back till it's over, over there.
Those who spoke out against the war faced condemnation. Censorship assumed official form with the passage of laws to root out and punish espionage and sedition. The postmaster general, for example, used the Espionage Act to confiscate newspapers deemed “suspect,” and the courts upheld cases that severely limited free speech.
This poster exhorts men on the home front, both black and white workers, to equate their labor with the exertions of men on the battlefield, and to recognize that they are just as important to the success of the war. View this print on the Gilder Lehrman website.
As the soldiers returned home, many faced an uncertain future. Jobs were scarce and labor lost ground to big business. African Americans were subjected to increasing discrimination and violence, and fears of Communist infiltration fueled the first Red Scare in 1919. Women’s contributions in wartime influenced the ratification in 1920 of the Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, giving women the right to vote.
After the war's end Harold Hopkins complained to his mother about his KP duties and hierarchy: "I'll have to beat it back and wash the dishes for some of the brave silver-stripe boys of the depot brigade who 'did their bit' by making life miserable for those who were foolish enough to enlist soon enough to go over to France."
Many African American men had enlisted in the US Army during World War I in hopes of gaining civil rights. After the war, violence against African Americans in the United States increased despite the black soldiers’ bravery in battle. In a sermon delivered in 1919, the Reverend Francis Grimké declared:
Scenes from Versailles and Armistice celebrations from The National Archives and Records Administration in the main window, returning soldiers in the smaller window. Video courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.
This program is part of World War I and America, a two-year national initiative of The Library of America presented in partnership with The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, the National World War I Museum and Memorial, and other organizations, with generous support from The National Endowment for the Humanities.
Exhibition developed by The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History; Michael S. Neiberg, advisor.