Dress (2002/2002) by Amaya ArzuagaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
A Complete Transformation
Spanish fashion has seen a complete transformation over the last half century. In response to what was happening on the international scene, with the rise of prêt-à-porter clothes and the decline of haute couture, Spain’s national industry endeavored to keep up with the times.This improved public perception of Spanish fashion appears to be continuing into the 21st century. It could be described as more virtual than tangible.Online fashion has shattered all predictions, while new strategies take hold and must constantly adapt to changes in new technologies.
The power of opinion—and particularly bloggers in this context—can even prevail over reviews by the professional media, and fashion labels are forced to pay attention on all fronts.
Fashion design is no longer about making clothes. It means selling a style and image, creating a brand, making the right contacts, and being seen everywhere. It means convincing everyone that, amidst the deluge of options that surface each day, yours is the most valid—the one that best meets the needs of a public that is very alert to everything going on around them.
Image: A design by Burgos-born Amaya Arzuaga, 2013 National Fashion Award.
Masters in Haute Couture
In the 1960s, bespoke tailoring was a mainstay of fashion. The designer Balenciaga was a steady source of inspiration for Spanish fashion houses, as he was for all French couturiers. Lino, Villarreal and Pedro Rodríguez—to name a few—were all prominent figures in haute couture, earning Spain its place in the world of fashion.
Dress (ca. 1964) by Cristobal BalenciagaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Cristobal Balenciaga, 1964
In Spain, Balenciaga sold his creations under his Eisa label, which was available in boutiques in San Sebastian (from 1919), Madrid (1933), and Barcelona (1935). Later, in 1936, he made the leap to Paris.
The designer was a steady source of inspiration for Spanish fashion houses, as he was for all French couturiers.
The apparent simplicity of this dress reveals traits that are typical of Balenciaga. Not only is it tight-fitting, the outline is formed of a structure that seems to be independent from the body it covers, as though were a separate piece of sculpture.
It was not in vain that Balenciaga once commented to Diana Vreeland, “A woman has no need to be perfect or even beautiful to wear my dresses; the dress will do all that for her.”
Top (1960/1960) by Flora VillarealMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Flora Villarreal, 1960
Villarreal was one of the most important fashion designers in Spain until she retired in 1968. Besides her creative talent, she found ways to buy patterns from the world’s leading international designers.
Skirt (1960/1960) by Flora VillarealMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Flora Villarreal, 1960
Understated skirt: another work by Flora Villarreal. Straight and black, it leaves the embroidery on the accompanying piece to take the limelight.
Dress (ca. 1960) by Pedro RodriguezMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Pedro Rodriguez, 1960
A dress by Pedro Rodríguez, which is shorter at the front as was the fashion in the 1960s.
The most eye-catching element is the wonderfully embroidered decoration on the skirt. Pedro Rodríguez’s skill in this work was unequaled.
The 1970s marked the start of the expansion of large-scale fashion production. Garments from different boutiques found their way into the wardrobes of Spanish women, following a series of androgynous pieces from Yves Saint Laurent and the emergence of a design concept combining functionality with aesthetics.
Dress (1967/1967) by El Corte InglésMuseo del Traje, Madrid
El Corte Inglés, 1967
Through its subsidiary, Induyco (“Industrias y Confecciones”), the El Corte Inglés chain of stores has managed its own textile production for several decades, which it uses to complement its fashion sections in Spain and abroad.
As department stores became more established, Spain succumbed to the miniskirt in time with the legs of the Spanish actress and singer, Marisol. She was a living image of an entire generation of timidly rebellious youngsters. The skimpy garment was one of the most prolific symbols of liberalization of the political regime, although the psychedelic culture that inspired the print of this dress struggled to take hold in the country.
Dress (ca. 1970) by Coppelia Galerías PreciadosMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Galerías Preciados, 1970
The department store chain Galerías Preciados designed its own fashion lines, including long maxi dresses in the 1970s—a fashion that ended the dominance of the miniskirt.
Skirt (ca. 1968) by PulliganMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Pulligan is one of Spain’s most longstanding fashion brands. Image: Knitted skirt with geometric print. The label’s clothes prioritize comfort, but without ignoring modern aesthetic values.
A Bespoke Transition
With the unconditional support of the upper classes, who were bound to traditional values and noticeably distanced from the sweeping changes happening abroad, haute couture in Spain fought bitterly to remain in existence. In 1974, new legislation placing a heavy tax on luxury products killed off the country’s haute couture fashion houses. The number of customers diminished as the range of manufactured clothes diversified, and the upsurge in young fashion designers with fewer preconceptions about creating “ready-to-wear” clothes put an end to the hopes of a sector that had virtually come undone by 1978.
Dress (1970/1970) by IsauraMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Juliá Isaura, 1970
Over six decades, the designer Juliá Isaura dressed Madrid’s aristocracy, following a strict tradition of haute couture. Towards the end of her career, she took pride in never having lowered the level of her clientele, meaning her creations never lost their luxurious aire.
This dress, made in her later career, shows how the designer managed to incorporate the trends of the 1970s, such as nude tones and a tunic-style cut.
There is a touch of ostentation in the luxurious decoration at the bottom, with fringes that glisten with cut Swarovski crystals used in an original combination with white plastic beads.
Dress (ca. 1972) by Marbel JuniorMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Marbel Junior, 1972
The volumes of the Spanish monastic tradition and influence of the cape came together with very innovative results. Their shape is not so different from new Japanese architectural constructions, as Marbel Junior acknowledges in this design.
Pioneers of Prêt-à-Porter
We can trace various pioneering forays into prêt-à-porter production in Spain, including garments imported from Paris and Vienna by Santa Eulalia from 1909; sporty lines by El Dique Flotante in the 1920s and 30s; or—in closer alignment with the prêt-à-porter concept— the introduction of Jacques Heim’s Jeunes Filles line, produced by Asunción Bastida for Spain in the 1950s. However, there is no doubt that few people in Spain in the 1970s knew what “ready-to-wear” fashion was.
Dress (ca. 1973) by Elio BerhanyerMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Elio Berhanyer, 1973
This print dress was created by Elio Berhanyer—the master designer from Andalusia.
Dress (ca. 1972) by LoeweMuseo del Traje, Madrid
The avant-garde design of this Loewe print follows the principles of casual Italian style, and is the result of beautiful tailoring.
Dress (ca. 1980) by Manuel PiñaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Manuel Piña, 1980
Manuel Piña’s experience with knitwear began well before his life as a designer. The architectural shape combines with the flexibility of the knitwear to achieve an original and comfortable design for the new executive female.
Sweater (1979/1979) by Francis MontesinosMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Francis Montesinos, 1979
This model reflects Montesinos’ taste for the texture of handmade knitwear. The fabric hugs the body perfectly, creating a daring, modern line.
New Spanish Fashion
Designers such as Piña, Montesinos, and Adolfo Domínguez rose from being virtually anonymous in their work to the heights of celebrity. Young and not-so-young alike, all keen to express themselves freely but in keeping with modern codes, they immersed themselves eagerly in a carnival of form. Out in the streets, people (or some of them, at least) wanted design and originality without inhibition. Many talented creatives stepped back from the visual arts and looked to clothing and fashion, where they could combine art and design.
Blouse (1984/1984) by Sybilla SorondoMuseo del Traje, Madrid
The figure that best represented this period in Spain was Sybilla Sorondo Myelzwynska, creator of the Sybilla and Jocomomola labels. Her work made a significant contribution to contemporary fashion through its originality and technical perfection, which at times led critics to associate her work with that of Cristóbal Balenciaga.
This is an outfit for everyday wear, and is recognisable for its pleats and folds, particularly on the blouse. The ecru fabric is evocative of the monastic austerity of the Japanese designers that formed the avant-garde movement of the 1970s and 80s.
Jacket (1990/1990) by Agatha Ruiz de la PradaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Agatha Ruiz de la Prada, 1990
This outfit showcases the playful feel of Agatha Ruiz de la Prada designs. It is part of the “Tribute to Sean Scully” collection, presented in Osaka (Japan) in 1990.
T-shirt (1990/1990) by Agatha Ruiz de la PradaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Wide bell-bottomed pants
Agatha Ruiz de la Prada, 1990
Geometric abstractions are transferred onto a garment that is more like a pictorial textile than something to wear. Rather than appealing to a sense of volume, it seeks to resemble a two-dimensional picture.
Cute (1981/1981) by Sara NavarroMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Sara Navarro, 1981
In the 1980s, Sara Navarro—best known for her contribution to footwear—started showing clothes crafted from the same materials she used for her shoes. Fabulous materials and impeccable tailoring in extremely comfortable clothes.
Coat (1988/1988) by Modesto Lomba and José Luis DevotaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Modesto Lomba and José Luis Devota, 1988
This beautiful coat by Devota & Lomba—a prelude to the minimalism of the 1990s—creates a design notable for its architectural influence. It won the Ama Prize for young designers with its debut on the Cibeles catwalk.
The 1990s saw a transition from exuberance to stability on the fashion catwalks. The Ministry of Industry looked to launch Spanish fashion around the world as a symbol of modernity, and part of that plan was to create the Cibeles fashion show. All this backing, coupled with a strong advertising campaign, created the feeling that this was a very special moment in Spanish fashion; that is was beginning to shine and could confidently rub shoulders with other international fashion capitals.
Dress (2002/2002) by Angel SchlesserMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Angel Schlesser, 2002
In the mid-80s, Schlesser was a name that would become synonymous with elegance and femininity on Spanish catwalks in the 1990s. With a hint of minimalism, subtle decoration and real sensuality, the designer immediately became one of the most popular of the new generation.
This dress takes us back to the “little black dress” that Chanel created in the mid-1920s, considered to be the essence of minimalism. It is made from two layers of chiffon, with the inner layer clinging to the body and the outer layer embroidered to accentuate the effect of transparency.
Cape (ca. 1998) by Fernando LemoniezMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Fernando Lemoniez, 1998
This piece, by Fernando Lemoniez, symbolizes the continuity of haute couture. Inspired by Zurbaranesque habits, which are a paradigm of Spanish painting, it transforms into an elegant cape made of the best quality wool, and hangs beautifully.
Jacket (1994/1994) by Roberto VerinoMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Roberto Verino, 1994
This outfit, which won Roberto Verino the T de Telva Award for Spanish design, is an example of the label’s more understated style. The use of polyester makes it lighter and free of wrinkles, and so more comfortable to wear.
Dress (ca. 1998) by Custo DalmauMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Custo Dalmau, 1998
This design combines many of the characteristics of Custodio Dalmau’s designs. Comfortable materials and prints reflect the aesthetic eclecticism of the new decade ahead.
Designs for a New Century
The 21st century is seeing past experience put into practice to find new artistic, commercial, and industrial solutions. This section features models from some of the most famous designers of recent years.
Dress (2009/2009) by Amaya ArzuagaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Amaya Arzuaga, 2009
Burgos-born Amaya Arzuaga will go down in history as the first Spanish designer to present her prêt-à-porter collection at London Fashion Week in 1997, shortly after her career began. This speaks to the Spanish designer’s renowned vocation for the avant-garde, meshing with deconstructive trends from Japan which were then taken up in Europe by the Belgians and the Dutch.
More classic than on other occasions, here Arzuaga presents a simple stretch minidress adding a touch of personality with a neck made from pieces of overlaid cloth. Even here, the constant avoidance of symmetry and the almost religious value that the color black holds for this designer can be seen.
Dress (2000/2000) by Armand BasiMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Armand Bassi, 2000
Daphne dress by Armand Bassi with a very theatrical feel, reviving the opulence of historicist fashions. The actress Emmanuelle Segnier wore it on the catwalk as if on a movie set.
Dress (2006/2006) by Miguel PalacioMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Miguel Palacio, 2006
Classic elegance with modern touches. Here, the work of designer Miguel Palacio is displayed. He salvages the dominant lines of the 1970s, combining them with modern cuts that revolutionize the shape.
Blouse (2002/2002) by Sita MurMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Sita Murt, 2002
Sita Murt comes from the industrial weaving sector. The weave of the shirt is combined with a leather skirt with daring lines. The glints of metal on the shirt are reminiscent of chainmail.
Jacket (2009/2009) by David DelfinMuseo del Traje, Madrid
David Delfin, 2009
This is a unique design that David Delfín created for Spain’s current queen, Letizia. Underneath the understated colouring, the daring reinterpretation of a man’s tailcoat is striking.
To finish, we are displaying three bridal gowns to pay homage to one of the most buoyant and creative sectors in Spanish fashion.
Skirt (1968/1968) by Chus BasalduaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Chus Basaldúa, 1968
This design by Chus Basaldúa has an A-line skirt and full waistband with a detailed embroidered trim of glass beads, crystals, gemstones, pink beading, and gray sequins. The long, white silk-serge skirt falls to the feet at the front and has a slight train at the back. It is made of three interlined pieces.
Dress (1971/1971) by Alberto VeaMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Alberto Vea, 1971
The clean lines of the design pattern are enhanced by the original fabric, turning a child-like dress into a very elegant bridal gown by Alberto Vea.
Dress (2002/2002) by Victorio & LucchinoMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Victorio & Lucchino, 2002
An impressive bridal dress by Victorio & Lucchino, reminiscent of the kinds of dresses worn at festivals because of their pattern design. And yet the use of lace transforms it into a very elegant bridal gown.
Purse (2005/2005) by LoeweMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Accessories are a side note on the importance of this sector and its vitality, particularly in the realms of footwear, perfumes, and leather goods, which is essential to Spanish fashion.
This bag from the Spanish fashion house Loewe, which specializes in leather goods, is shining example of this.
Hat (2003/2003) by Candela CortMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Candela Cort, 1959
Hat designed by Candela Cort, where freedom and originality create a fun and unique composition.
Head-dress (ca. 1965) by Pedro RodriguezMuseo del Traje, Madrid
Pedro Rodriguez, 1965
Headpiece designed by Pedro Rodriguez in 1965 to complete and enhance an outfit with the same fabric and decoration. It is impossible to imagine wearing the outfit without the headpiece to round off the look.
Fashion in Spain: contemporary designers making their mark
Curator: Juan Gutierrez
Museo del Traje