GOLDEN COLLECTION. RUSSIAN ART

Collection of Russian art of the XVIII - the beginning of the XX century in the collection of the National Fine Arts Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

By The National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Вид города Якуцка (1770) by Рудаков Алексей ГавриловичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

«The view of the city of Yakutsk» was engraved in May 1770 by the youngest of engravers who took part in the creation of the types of cities, Alexei Gavrilovich Rudakov (1748 - after 1803). The city itself is depicted visible from behind the river in the third plan, but you can distinguish between the layout and its individual buildings. The appearance of Yakutsk of the 18th century, created by artist A.G. Rudakov from the drawing I.V. Lursenius has not only historical value, but is one of the first works of art dedicated to the capital of the northern edge, and to this day retains the attractive force of charisma.

Портрет якутского купца Соловьева (?) by Неизвестный художник I половины XIX в.The National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Portraits of merchants of the work of local artists, previously stored in the Yakutsk Museum of Local Lore, organically complemented the Russian collection. The written testimonies left by travelers and people who, by the will of fate, were on the far outskirts of the Russian Empire, always noted with surprise that there were skilled craftsmen in Yakutsk who wrote eminent citizens and painted numerous churches and cathedrals.

In portraits of Yakut merchants Solovyovs by an unknown artist of the beginning of the XIX century, the Russian tradition of portrait painting, coming from parsuna letter, still long preserved in the Russian province, can be clearly seen. The model’s face is expressive on the «Portrait of a Merchant» looking directly at the viewer. In the lively gaze of dark eyes, one feels the hardness of character and clarity of mind. Conditionally written, as if a figure spread on a plane gives significance to the figure.

Портрет якутской купчихи Соловьевой (?) by Неизвестный художник I половины XIX в.The National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

The «Portrait of a Merchant» (woman portrait) paired to him unites the generality of the compositional scheme. The decorative clothing of the woman is emphasized, in which the artist is attentive to the smallest detail, reproducing the floral pattern and creases of the fabric of an elegant shawl, taken out of the trunk for a special occasion.

Depicted - a typical representative of the patriarchal life, the mistress in her home. Her face with faded eyes and slightly lowered corners of her lips expresses a state of constant concern.

Портрет неизвестного в черном сюртуке (1838) by Тропинин Василий АндреевичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

... The time of creating the «Portrait of an unknown man in a black frock coat» - 1838. This is a art mature period of master. In the atmosphere of the portrait there is that characteristic of the author naturalness that distinguishes many of his works, combining portrait images with elements of the genre.

Not only the expressive face of a man is remembered, but also the skill with which the subtlety of lace, the play of silk of a bow, and the sheen of metal are conveyed.

Портрет П.П.Семенова -Тян-Шанского (1874) by Колесов Алексей МихайловичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Destiny and personality of Peter Petrovich Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1827-1914), captured in this formal portrait, is very amazing. The Russian researcher entered the history not only as an outstanding scientist, but also as a public figure, an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Vice-Chairman of the Russian geographical and Russian entological societies. In the year of the 50th anniversary of the first expedition of the famous researcher came the Royal decree, which forever attached to the name of Peter Petrovich Semenov title Tian-Shansky.

Героиня Боболина с охотниками прорывается под градом выстрелов на катере сквозь турецкий флот, блокировавший Навили в 1827 году (1880) by Айвазовский Иван КонстантиновичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

The great Mariner Aivazovsky rarely turned to the battle genre, but the war for Greece's independence from Turkey attracted the attention of an outstanding painter. The events of those days gave birth not only to heroes, but also heroines. Here before us is Lascarina Bobolina – a native of a small island located at the entrance to the Navili Bay. In 1812 her husband was captured, taken to Constantinople and executed there.

... There was a first call to fight against the Turkish yoke. In 1821, Bobolina equips three ships at her own expense, and, as they say, according to the old cleft, Mr. Henri Belle, she, raising a banner with the slogan of Spartan women - «With a shield or on a shield» - goes to the shores Asia Minor and there with the fearlessness, worthy of Tsamados or Canaris, captures and burns Turkish vessels; then, generously donating her ships to the new government, she participates in the siege of Tripoli, imposes on Navpli a blockade that lasts for fourteen months and eventually forces the fortress to surrender.

Сумерки (1883) by Шишкин Иван ИвановичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Among Russian landscape painters, Ivan Shishkin undoubtedly occupies the place of the most powerful artist. In all his works, he is an amazing connoisseur of plant forms, reproducing them with a subtle understanding of both the general nature and the smallest distinctive features of any species of trees, bushes and grasses.
In the 1880s, the master creates a large number of paintings, in the plots of which he still turns primarily to the life of the Russian forest, meadows and fields. The main features of his art persist even now, but the artist does not remain motionless in the creative positions developed by the end of the seventies.

For example, such a canvas as «Twilight» (1883) is close in character to the work of the previous decade. However, it is interpreted with greater scenic freedom. In the best landscapes of Shishkin of this time, the tendencies common to the Russian fine art reflected by him in their own way are reflected. The artist is enthusiastically working on large-scale, epic-style paintings glorifying his native land, the Russian forest. Now everything is more tangible than his desire to transfer the state of nature, the expression of images, the purity of the palette. In many works, tracing the color and light gradations, he uses the principles of tonal painting.

Портрет Елены (?) Снегиревой (1897) by Маковский Владимир ЕгоровичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

In the field of portrait painting, Vladimir Makovsky touched and showed the life of almost all social groups and classes of Russia. Here merchants, officials, nobles of all ranks and states; intellectuals of different social classes and working people - artisans, workmen and peasants; commoners of different ages and characters.

Clarity of content, depth of thought and truthfulness distinguish all the best works of the artist. Portrait of Elena (?) Snegireva, performed by the painter in 1897, in 1898 was exhibited at the 26th exhibition of the Association of Wanderers (Peredvizhniki). The modest color of the portrait is subordinated to the main task - the disclosure of the inner world of the portrait.

Портрет царевны Софьи by Маковский Константин ЕгоровичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Konstantin Egorovich Makovsky was one of the most famous artists of Russia. Artistic heritage of Makovsky is very significant, and the lion's share of his work was in private collections and sales of his works are comparable except with the paintings of Aivazovsky, one of the most well-known Russian masters. In the 1880s he became a fashionable author of portraits and historical pictures. One of the most unique works of the master is «Portrait of Princess Sophia», a vivid image that is imbued with psychology and a special aura strong personality.

Голова молодого еврея (1884) by Поленов Василий ДмитриевичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Etude for the painting «Christ and the sinner»

Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov was a bright versatile artist with a wide range of creative interests. However, the main place in the work of Polenov is a huge canvas «Christ and a sinner (Who is without sin?)» (1888), in which the author sought to tell the biblical story as a real life event.

Back in his youth, under the impression of Alexander Ivanov’s painting «Christ Appearing to the People», Vasily Polenov conceived the idea to create a large canvas of ethical content capable of influencing the viewer with the power of his drama. According to the artist, such a work would meet the needs of the time, the spiritual needs of people. Writing a picture was preceded by a trip to Egypt and Palestine, the study of life, customs and color of ancient Judea. The first sketches were made during a pensioner's trip in 1873 and 1876.

Портрет И.Е. Репина (1901) by Серов Валентин АлександровичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

The first meeting between of artists Ilya Repin and Valentin Serov happened when Serov was not even seven years old. A year later, Valentin began drawing at Repin's workshop. Subsequently, Repin greatly appreciated Serov’s talent as a painter, noting also his irrepressible hard work and perseverance. Since childhood, Valentine showed remarkable abilities that were strengthened with the help of his older friend from year to year.

Naturally, the friendship of the two artists could not help but result in drawing each other; There are two famous portraits of Repin, drawn by Serov and two portraits of Serov, painted by Repin. The portrait kept in the collection of the National Fine Arts Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakuita) is amazing in its uniqueness and special author's handwriting. When writing a portrait, Serov first carefully studied the character of a person, his features, and then in the portrait he pointed out one, the most striking feature of the character and appearance of the model.

Букет (1908) by Коровин Константин АлексеевичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Korovin - an artist, photos and reproductions of paintings which have enjoyed the same popularity for a century. The mystery of extraordinary appeal is in the originality of the style and emotional richness of the works. In his works, the artist skillfully works with light and nuances of shades. For example, «Bouquet» (1908) is filled with iridescent green, red and white. The beauty of the torn flowers is lyrical and at the same time clear.

Лунная ночь (Около 1898-1908) by Куинджи Архип ИвановичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

There are at least three paintings by Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi with the same name. In addition to the National Art Museum of the RS (Y), they are located in the State Russian Museum of St. Petersburg and in the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. Art critics admit that «Kuindzhi discovers the color of the air, studies the weakly pulsating vibration of air jets, overcomes his own tonal system of painting».

In 1880, Kuindzhi was astonished by St. Petersburg with a unique exhibition of one painting «Moonlight Night on the Dnieper». In a room draped with black cloth, in absolute darkness, illuminated by a directional beam of electric light, the picture caused an enthusiastic stupor. Its main character was the moonlight filled with poetry. Enchanted visitors stood in prayer silence, as if the participants of a certain action, similar to the ancient Greek mysteries. Kuindzhi dubbed the «Wizard of the Light». The artist's coloristic tricks became a revelation for his contemporaries. People started to talk about the revival of romanticism.

Arkhip Ivanovich was friends with Mendeleev and often visited his laboratory. Dmitry Ivanovich, as a medieval alchemist, sought in colors the soul of light, just as Paganini sought in music the soul of sound. Kuindzhi believed that he had found a secret, and that his paintings would live and shine after him

Портрет молодой грузинки by Врубель Михаил АлександровичThe National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

... Vrubel's painting was
filled with mystery. A rare gift bordered with madness. And for his talent, the
artist paid a considerable price. He gave to his canvases home to demons, and
maybe it's the demons captured him. But, anyway, it was Mikhail Vrubel who
created real demonic images of the inhabitants of the other world. Everything
is strange in Vrubel's work. His way of the cross of a professional artist, he
began with icon paintings of the St. Cyril's Church in Kiev. He, who gave life
to demons, wrote with the same obsession and on Orthodox themes, created in the
colors of Christ and the mother of God, and numerous saints. These convulsive
throwing from Christ to the demons of darkness will accompany Michael Vrubel
all his life.

And the order to illustrate M.L. Lermontov, which is being prepared for publication, did not become accidental, but quite natural and even, probably, inevitable. Demon, who until now had only poetic lines, acquired his colorful flesh. The demon of Vrubel absolutely corresponded to the demon of Lermontov in the last version of the poem. This was no longer a yearning young man with a fiery gaze. It was a rebellious, evil, hungering spirit whose flesh is from the flesh of the rocks. It was a demon that was mundane, sensual and terrible in its merciless desire to destroy and conquer ...

Some antipode, an element of binary opposition to it, appeared in the work Tamara, whose appearance is captured in the «Portrait of a Young Georgian Woman» kept in the National Art Museum of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic and probably belongs to the brush Vrubel.

A thin, shaky line running along Tamara's beautiful profile - as if created to emphasize the difference, the abyss and, at the same time, the amazing unity of the essence of the young Georgian and the demon ...

Credits: Story

Science editor:
Timofeeva V.V., general director

Author of the project:
Baskhardyrova T.D., science researcher

Technical specialist:
Chernogradskaya A.A.,
specialist of the exposition sector

The texts of the following authors are used in the material - Gabysheva A.L., Neustroeva G.G., Safronova G.A., Baskhardyrova T.D.

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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