sharpeville massacre

The non-violent campaign to reverse apartheid began here.

Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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"This is the call the African people have been waiting for! It has come! On Monday, 21st March 1960, we launch our positive, decisive campaign against the pass laws in this our country." Thus spoke Mangaliso Sobukwe, three days before Sharpeville. South Africa had started a new phase in her history.

Three days later the Pan-Africanist leaders started their non-violent campaign to reverse apartheid Mangaliso Sobukwe made his intention clear in a letter to the Commissioner of Police: "I have given strict instruction," he said, "not only to members of my own organization but also to the African people in general, that they should not allow themselves to be provoked into violent action by anyone."

And so, on the appointed day, monday, March 21, thousands of Pan-Africanists  reported to the police without their passes and asked to be arrested. Their object was to demostrate the force of organised non-violence. They wanted to make the pass laws unworkable as a first step in a long campaign to achieve "freedom and independence" for Africans by 1963.

The police were taken unawares by the crowds of volunteers who asked to be arrested. In some places the leaders were detained, in others they were persuaded to return home. Everything went according to plan, and then, at Sharpeville, tragedy occured.

Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Just before the massacre starts a Saracen goes through a crowd of chanting Africans

Sharpeville massacre - how it began, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Sharpeville massacre - how it began, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Minutes later, some of these people are lying dead

Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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People mourn the dead

Sharpeville massacre - how it began, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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The crowds run in panic from the shooting

Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Five Months Nightmare, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Five Months Nightmare, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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The wounded are helped 

Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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It was officially announced that 67 Africans were killed and 186 wounded, after the police had opened fire on the crowd.

Sharpeville Funeral, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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Though it was the PAC that took the lead in the anti-pass law campaign, it was Chief Albert Luthuli of the ANC who called on Africans to observe March 28 as a day of Mourning. PAC leaders supported this move, and Africans responded with unanimity.

Sharpeville massacre, 1960-03-21, Original Source: Baileys African History Archive
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After the people's protest, after the Sharpeville killings, after 20,000 people had been detained, after 156 days of nightmare, the Government closed another chapter in our Country's history. There was to be no change. Apartheid and baaskap were here to stay.

Credits: Story

Text—Drum Magazine / Baileys African History Archive and Africa Media Online

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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