Field in Focus: Predicting Pandemics

Field in Focus is a video series that brings you into the field with Smithsonian scientists working to save species around the globe.

Dr. Ohmar in the field (2019) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Smithsonian researchers partner with experts in Myanmar studying human and animal health to find out what diseases are present in wildlife and whether they could pose a threat to humans.

For the first time, see these scientists in the field as they collect blood from cave nectar bats, sample saliva from macaques and track the movement of flying foxes across the country.

Why Myanmar?

Myanmar is a biodiversity hotspot with vast rural settings and forests. That habitat supports a large number of species, including bats and other animals that, in other parts of the world, have been known to carry zoonotic and emerging viruses. The country is also becoming more developed, which leads to more high-risk interactions between humans and wildlife.

Global Health Program researchers work closely with resident scientists — and collaborate with Myanmar's Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation; Ministry of Health and Sports; and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation — to collect and analyze biological samples from wildlife and the humans they come in contact with.

Monk feeding monkeys in Myanmar (2019) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

The researchers also investigate domestic animals and coordinate with local healthcare professionals to identify viral risks in humans. PREDICT focuses on high-risk interfaces, or areas where interactions with animals might predispose humans to disease contraction. 

Understanding which diseases have the capacity to jump species and where that transmission is most likely to occur could lead to earlier detection and potentially life-saving intervention.

Field in Focus: Predicting PandemicsSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Dr. Ohnmar Aung at kjwe Min Gu CaveSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Meet Some Scientists

Following a One Health approach — which combines human and veterinary medicine to solve some of the world’s larger health and conservation problems — Myanmar’s PREDICT activities are co-led by Drs. Ohnmar Aung and Marc Valitutto.

Dr. Ohnmar Aung is a medical doctor and social scientist. As the country coordinator for PREDICT in Myanmar, she is responsible for guiding and coordinating the project within the country, alongside Myanmars three ministry partners. Dr. Aung has been a practicing physician for more than 15 years and has extensive experience bringing health infrastructure to communities throughout the country.

Marc Valitutto at Kjwe Min Gu CaveSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Dr. Marc Valitutto is a wildlife veterinarian with SCBI’s Global Health Program and is the global lead for PREDICT in Myanmar. He coordinates and implements wildlife health studies and training in Asia, and his research focuses on One Health related topics, specifically evaluating the transmission of zoonotic diseases from wildlife to humans in Myanmar.

Kyaw Yan Naing Tun using a transceiver rigSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Dr. Kyaw Yan Naing Tun is Myanmar’s PREDICT field veterinary surveillance officer. He is responsible for managing and training a team of Myanmar veterinarians and field assistants for the collection of animals and their samples in the field. He previously worked as a  veterinarian for the Nay Pyi Taw Zoo after graduating from veterinary school with a Ph.D. in veterinary nutrition.

Dr. Jennifer Kishbaugh using a transceiverSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Dr. Jennifer Kishbaugh is the Smithsonian’s 2017-2018 Judy and John W. McCarter, Jr. Global Health Veterinary Intern. She leads a pilot project to track Indian flying foxes using GPS collars, alongside the PREDICT Myanmar team.

Field in Focus: Linno Cave 360 (2018-10-25)Smithsonian National Zoological Park

The Bats Of Linno Cave

More than 500,000 bats roost in Linno Cave, crossing paths with people and livestock every day. The team conducts most of their work at night when the bats emerge from the caves to feed. Working carefully, the researchers collect measurements and samples from each animal they catch.

Global Health Program staff holding a wrinkle-lipped bat (2018-07)Smithsonian National Zoological Park

Linno Cave is home to at least four bat species. So far, the researchers have successfully caught and taken samples from wrinkle-lipped bats and cave nectar bats. The bats are given sugar water before being released to ensure they have the energy to continue their flight — just like a person might receive a sugary juice after a blood drive.

Sampling bumble-bee bat in Kjwe Min Gu Cave (2018-08) by Roshan PatelSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Myanmar scientists at collaborating government laboratories in Yangon analyze the samples from each research site for four viral families:

SARS-CoV-2 virus (2020-01-30) by Alissa Eckert, MS; Dan Higgins, MAMOriginal Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Examples: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)

These viruses are common in many species, including camels and bats. Though most coronaviruses are species-specific, some have spread to humans.

Ebola Virus Particles (2018-10-18) by NIAIDOriginal Source: NIAID


Example: Ebola

In primates, including humans, filoviruses can cause hemorrhagic fever — which damages the vascular system and impacts the body's ability to regulate itself. This viral family has also been detected in pigs and bats. Bats are believed to be the source of recent Ebola outbreaks in Africa.

The Hendra Virus by Electron Microscopy Unit AAHLOriginal Source: Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory


Examples: Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Measles, Mumps, Canine distemper

The flying fox is a natural carrier for both Hendra virus and Nipah Virus. Hendra can cause respiratory and neurologic diseases in horses and humans, while Nipah has spread to pigs and humans, causing encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and respiratory illness.

Digitally-colorized transmission electron microscopic image of spherical virions from a 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus isolate (2009) by C. S. Goldsmith and A. Balish, CDCOriginal Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

ParamyxovirusesInfluenza viruses

Examples: Bird flu (e.g., H5N1, H7N9), Swine flu (e.g., H1N1)

Influenza viruses impact many species, including (but not limited to) ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, seals and humans. The flu can spread from person to person, and is most common in the U.S. during the fall and winter.

Scientists sequence the viruses they detect in animals to determine their pathogenicity, or ability to cause disease, in humans. Any viruses detected in samples from animals or humans are also analyzed for pandemic potential. If a virus is considered a concern, the researchers work with Myanmar’s government to determine the immediacy of the issue and whether a response is necessary.

Bumble bee bat in kjwe min gu cave (2019) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

The researchers have already identified two new coronaviruses in saliva and fecal samples from insect-eating bats. One of these viruses had never been detected in the world, and the second had only been identified in Thailand’s bats. 

While these new viruses belong to the same family as SARS and MERS, there is no evidence that they pose a threat to people at this time.

Field in Focus: Kawgun Cave (2018-10-25)Smithsonian National Zoological Park

The Monkeys Of Kawgun Cave

Kawgun Cave, another research site in Hpa An, draws locals and travelers for its historic, religious and cultural significance. 

Macaque in Myanmar (2019) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Groups of macaques congregate just outside the cave where visitors often feed them by hand. The team uses a unique method to collect DNA samples from these monkeys.

Researchers collect samples outside cave in Myanmar (2019) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Sample collection can be challenging, and weather complications can damper the work. PREDICT guidelines require full personal protective equipment, which can be especially cumbersome in intense heat and rain.

Global Health Program staff outside a cave in Myanmar (2017) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

At times, it may also be difficult to ask local participants to wear the protective equipment when they have long interacted with these animals without it. Ultimately, the team’s goal is to put as little stress as possible on their partners in the field, the local community members they interact with and the animals they sample.

Field in Focus: Hlawga National Park (2018-10-25)Smithsonian National Zoological Park

The Animals Of Hlawga National Park

At Hlawga National Park in Myanmar’s Yangon region, tourists mingle with animals, including sambar deer, Asian elephants, macaques, wild boars, pigs, bats and rodents — some of which are endangered. See what scientists look for and how they  gauge the threat of zoonotic diseases to protect both people and animals.

In addition to concerns about viruses spilling over to humans, researchers are also interested in what diseases may spread among the different animals that live in the park.

Field in Focus: Flying Foxes (2018-10-25)Smithsonian National Zoological Park

The more samples the team collects, the better chance they have of detecting a virus and assessing which species carry certain diseases. At every research site, they collect about 10-12 samples from at least 300 individuals per species, including humans.

Wildlife veterinarians are also interested in how an animal’s movement from place to place can inform infectious-disease research. Paired with biological samples, such as blood, feces and saliva, movement data can give them a sense of how diseases also travel within an environment.

Flying fox in Myanmar (2020) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

Tracking Flying Foxes

With help from experts at the Smithsonian’s Movement of Life initiative, the GHP team is tracking Indian flying foxes. Also called megabats, flying foxes are some of the largest bats in the world. They provide vital ecosystem services, spreading seeds and pollinating as they travel from tree to tree feeding on fruit. But they are also associated with dangerous diseases, including rabies, influenza, Nipah virus and Hendra virus.

GPS collared fruit bat (2017) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

To track flying foxes, researchers designed a special GPS collar that is lightweight, easily fastened and accounts for the bats’ unique physiology (like flying horizontally and roosting upside down).

Researchers using transceiver to track fruit batsSmithsonian National Zoological Park

The team has already discovered where the bats go to feed. Now, they are gathering site-specific information, such as what types of trees are present, if the area is forest or farmland, and if other animals or people live nearby.

Flying fox in Myanmar (2020) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

The health of humans, animals and the environment is inextricably linked. A better understanding of the bats’ movement will help inform future conservation strategies that protect both the bats and the people they come into contact with.

Indian flying foxSmithsonian National Zoological Park

What Comes Next

As the Global Health Team enters their fifth and final year of the PREDICT project, they are sharing data with local communities and making recommendations to reduce risk. Through education and collaboration, they hope that the people of Myanmar will have the resources and desire to continue investigating disease surveillance and prevention long after the Smithsonian team leaves.

Sampling Wrinkle-lipped bat (2019) by UnknownSmithsonian National Zoological Park

The Myanmar government has been a critical partner throughout the project, working directly with the Smithsonian team to conduct field surveillance, train scientists and analyze samples in-country. 

More than 500 individuals have already received hands-on training in biosecurity, temperature-controlled supply chain management, personal protective equipment, laboratory analysis, and the safe handling and sampling of various animals since the project began. 

This work was funded by USAID PREDICT and, in part, by the Smithsonian's Women's Committee, and the Judy and John McCarter, Jr. Global Health internship. This project is a collaboration with three of Myanmar's government ministries: the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation (MOALI); the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS); and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC).

It would not be possible without the following collaborators in Myanmar: Department of Medical Research, MOHS; the Livestock, Breeding, and Veterinary Department (LBVD), MOALI; Forestry Department, MONREC; State Health Department, Kayin; Regional Health Department, Yangon; Township Health Department, Hpa-an; Township Health Department, Hmawbi, Taikkyi; LBVD, Kayin State; LBVD, Yangon Region; Forestry Department, Kayin State; Officials from Hlawga National Park, Yangon; Township Administrative Department, Hpa-an; Township Administrative Department, Yangon; and respected community members and volunteers in Hpa-an, Hmawbi and Taikkyi.

The Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute's Global Health Program works to combat threats to conservation and global health worldwide. Learn more about their work and the other projects they have underway around the world.

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