Over 3,000 years ago, a man named Menna lived in the area we know today as Luxor. During his life, he was a high-ranking official and, before he died, he built a magnificent tomb on Luxor’s West Bank.
This tomb is still recognized today for its exceptionally vibrant and beautiful paintings. The walls of this unique tomb tell us the story not just of Menna’s life, but his death, and journey into the afterlife and beyond.
Deceased receiving offerings from their son by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
Preparing for the Afterlife
As Menna aged, he had to have two things to make sure that he could live on in the afterlife after his death: a tomb with all the necessary pictures and texts inside to aid in his resurrection...
and the correct funerary rituals, including the mummification of his body, to preserve it for eternity.
Menna the Mummy
Since the Ancient Egyptians believed the preservation of their body was necessary for a successful passage into the afterlife, Menna had to be mummified.
His organs were removed and the stomach, liver, lungs, and intestines preserved in canopic jars. His body was then desiccated (dried out), anointed with oils, and wrapped in linen and protective amulets, ready to be placed in a coffin as a mummy.
Man carrying Menna's mummy by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
Rites and Rituals
As a mummy, Menna retained his outer form, but a his body would also need to be nourished or, before long, it would die.
Therefore, in a rather complicated ceremony called the “Opening of the Mouth”, a priest symbolically opened Menna’s mouth and nose so that he could eat, drink, and breathe, just like any living human. Priests also performed a similar ritual on the painted representations of the dead in the tomb.
Opening of the Mouth ritual by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
They even traveled to Abydos, one of the main cult centers of Osiris, more than 160 km downstream from Thebes to participate in special rituals.
Traveling to and from Abydos by boat by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
After the 70 day process of mummification, Menna’s mummy was given food offerings and carried in a funerary processional to the tomb.
Funerary procession by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
Here more offerings were given and a bull was ritually slaughtered. Finally, the priests recited additional words of protection, and the mummy was placed into the burial chamber along with special grave goods.
Before Menna could live forever in the presence of the gods, he required the approval of Osiris, lord of the Netherworld and divine judge on the Day of Judgment.
In this scene, Menna and his wife, Henuttawy, make offerings to Osiris and praise the god, who sits in a golden kiosk, in order to gain his favor.
Adoring Osiris, lord of the netherworld by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
Weighing of the Heart
Eventually, Menna had to confront Osiris to receive the final judgment. Maat, the goddess of truth, resembles the weight against which Menna’s heart is measured.
Menna awaiting Osiris' judgment by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
Eternity in Paradise
Once Menna was resurrected in the afterlife, he could enjoy his new life in paradise. Here we can see Menna in the marshes with his wife and family, hunting birds and fish.
Menna fishing (right) and fowling (left) in the papyrus marshes by Katy DoyleAmerican Research Center In Egypt
The conservation and documentation of the tomb of Menna was sponsored by American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) Egyptian Antiquities Conservation Project with funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Georgia State University in collaboration with the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities.
Created by Elisabeth Koch and Tessa Litecky, ARCE
Visit ARCE at www.arce.org