Vietnam Veterans Memorial

A Story Behind the Memorial

By U.S. National Archives

Joint Resolution (1980-07-01) by Ninety-Sixth Congress of the United States of AmericaU.S. National Archives

Joint Resolution Signed by Congress

Jimmy Carter's signature began the official process of creating the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. 

Washington Post Article "A Vietnam Memorial" (1980-03-22) by Jan ScruggsU.S. National Archives

Jan Scruggs, founder of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, wrote an opinion piece for The Washington Post on why it is necessary to create a Vietnam Memorial.

Scruggs sought to bring together a nation which had been divided by the war.

Personal Note from Mrs Kielich (1980-11-17) by Kathie KielichU.S. National Archives

"We would appreciate it if you could bring this to Mrs. Reagan's attention as soon as possible. Sincerely-
Mrs. Kielich
P.S. We're next door!"

Personal note attached to a letter to Mrs. Reagan.

Letter to Mrs.Reagan (1980-11-17) by Jan ScruggsU.S. National Archives

Jan Scruggs' letter to Mrs. Reagan to request her to join the National Sponsoring Committee of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund.

Design Program Competition, Cover (1980-11-24) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FoundationU.S. National Archives

Design Program

The Design Program booklet gave competitors details of the Memorial site, and description of the site where the Vietnam Veterans Memorial would be located.

Design Program, Page 1 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Inside the first pages of the Design Program.

Design Program, Pages 2 & 3 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Description of the Memorial site, vegetation, sub-soil conditions, topography, and other details of the area.

Design Program, Pages 4 & 5 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Details of how visitors would view the Memorial on foot.

Design Program, Pages 6 & 7 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Left side describes the outside noise of the Mall, and details other places and memorials to visit.

Right side provides aerial views of the proposed location.

Design Program, Pages 8 & 9 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Different views from inside the Vietnam Veterans Memorial site, in varying seasons.

Design Program, Pages 10 & 11 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Varied views looking towards the Vietnam Veterans Memorial site.

Design Program, Pages 16 & 17 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Requirements of the Memorial design, and what is required in the Memorial.

Design Program Pages 18-19, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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How to ship design entries, and how to identify competitors.

Design Program, Page 20 of 20, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1980-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Back pages of the Design Program.

The Front and Back of Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Pamphlet, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Pamphlet to help raise funds for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The Memorial was created with all private donations, no government funds.

Inside of Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Pamphlet, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Inside the pamphlet, which details the purpose behind the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Fact Sheet (1980-11) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Fact Sheet

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund released a fact sheet, in 1980, to share their motives with the public. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (VVMF) would regularly update their fact sheets to keep the public, and all donors, aware of their progress.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Information Sheet (1981-03) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Information Sheet

The information sheet updated the public on the status of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Competition and funding behind the Memorial.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Fund Fact Sheet (1981-03) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Fund fact sheet so the VVMF could be fully transparent about their use of donations.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Winner Announcement, Page 1 of 3 (1981-05-06) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Competition Winner Announcement

Three page letter which announced the winner of the design competition. It also described the selection committee which selected the winning contestant, Maya Lin.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Winner Announcement, Page 2 of 3, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1981-05-06, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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The underline was made by a White House official, which gives a glimpse into what the White House found most important about the announcement.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Winner Announcement, Page 3 of 3, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1981-05-06, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Memorial Concept Images Front, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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These concept images of the winning design were released to the public after the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation announced the winner.

Memorial Concept Image Back, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Backside of the concept image booklet.

Design Pamphlet Announcing Winners, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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The pamphlet announced the winner of the design competition. It also lists the runners-up and the honorable mentions.

Design Competition Pamphlet Inside, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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11-12-1982 Photo op of unidentified people holding a Vietnam War Memorial Plaque on the White House groundsU.S. National Archives

Group of unidentified people holding a plaque of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial design

Mrs.Reagan Thank You Letter by Nancy ReaganU.S. National Archives

Mrs. Reagan's thank you notes to people who donated over $500. Those donors included Henry Kissinger and Martha Stewart.

Statement by Maya Lin on her Winning Design by Maya LinU.S. National Archives

The statement by Maya Lin is marked up by a White House official, which shows what the White House saw as important aspects of the Memorial.

Maya Lin described why she created the Vietnam Veterans Memorial the way she did.

Critical Letter to Jeffrey John (1981-05-11) by Eric V. BleickenU.S. National Archives

Many people were vocally upset about the winning Memorial design. This is one Vietnam vet who was very unhappy about the design, and he believed the monument would only bring negative connotations of the Vietnam War to future generations.

Much of the criticism towards the design had to do with people feeling the Memorial was an apology, not a celebration.

New York Times Article on Maya Lin (1981-06-11) by Paul GoldbergerU.S. National Archives

One of the few positive articles on Maya Lin, which was published in The New York Times.

Some of the glowing description for Maya Lin's design.

"Stop That Monument" by The National Review (1981-09-18) by The National ReviewU.S. National Archives

The National Review was much more negative about the Memorial. The believed the monument was a disgrace and insult to Vietnam veterans.

The author painted the Memorial as an insult to Vietnam Veterans, and that the Memorial should be thrown into a tidal flat.

Thomas Carhart's Letter to the Fine Arts Commission, Page 1 of 5 (1981-10-13) by Thomas CarhartU.S. National Archives

Thomas Carhart wrote to the U.S. Fine Arts Commission stating his issues and problems with the selection process used by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Foundation in choosing a winner.

Thomas Carhart's Letter to the Fine Arts Commission, Page 2 of 5 (1981-10-13) by Thomas CarhartU.S. National Archives

One of the issues Carhart had with the selection process was the fact that no one in the selection committee had served in Vietnam.

Thomas Carhart's Letter to the Fine Arts Commission, Page 3 of 5 (1981-10-13) by Thomas CarhartU.S. National Archives

Carhart stated that when he came home from Vietnam he was spat upon, and that this Memorial design fits the narrative of the Vietnam Veteran as the enemy to the American people.

Thomas Carhart's Letter to the Fine Arts Commission, Page 4 of 5 (1981-10-13) by Thomas CarhartU.S. National Archives

Carhart felt that the black marble of the memorial was out of place in Washington D.C., and he described the only other black facade memorials in the area. The other black facade memorials were all heroic, and the Vietnam Memorial did not fit that heroic theme.

Thomas Carhart's Letter to the Fine Arts Commission, Page 5 of 5 (1981-10-13) by Thomas CarhartU.S. National Archives

Carhart does not want a Vietnam Memorial which feels like an apology. He wants his service to be treated with "grace and dignity."

Webb Resignation, James Webb, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1981-11-24, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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James Webb resigned from the VVMF after disagreeing with the design of the Memorial, as well as the selection process.

James Webb letter, Page 1 of 2 by James WebbU.S. National Archives

The letter by Webb detailed the changes he sought to be made, which are the reasons behind his resignation.

James Webb letter, Page 2 of 2 by James WebbU.S. National Archives

Final two points by Webb.

Letter From Congress to Watt, Page 1 of 3, Philip M. Crane, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1981-11-20, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Members of the House of Representatives sent an additional letter to the White House expressing their disdain for the proposed design of the Memorial.

Letter From Congress to Watt, Page 2 of 3, Philip M. Crane, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1981-11-20, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Letter From Congress to Watt, Page 3 of 3, Philip M. Crane, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1981-11-20, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Signatures of different members of the House of Representatives, who were against the design of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Critical Letter (1981-11-25) by Frederick R. DalyU.S. National Archives

Critical letter to the White House about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Government Record of Daly's Critical Letter (1981-11-25) by Mike DeaverU.S. National Archives

Government record of Daly's critical letter

"What is this about"

Perot Compromise (1982-02-17) by Morton C. BlackwellU.S. National Archives

The Compromise

Ross Perot brokered a compromise to allow the construction of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The compromise added an American flag, a heroic statue, and the inscription to be rewritten.

American Legion Support of Memorial, Page 1 of 3, The American Legion, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1982-03-04, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Letter from the American Legion professing support for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

American Legion Support of Memorial, Page 2 of 3, The American Legion, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1982-03-04, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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The American Legion argued that controversy for the design did not come about until 1982. As previously seen, disparaging letters came immediately following the public announcement of the design.

American Legion Support of Memorial, Page 3 of 3, The American Legion, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1982-03-04, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Unsell's Strongly Worded Letter (1982-03-23) by Lloyd N. UnsellU.S. National Archives

Lloyd Unsell was a supporter of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and he wrote a strongly worded letter to a person who disparaged the Memorial's design.

Handwritten Rough Draft Schedule of the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans, Page 1 of 2 by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

National Salute to Vietnam Veterans

Handwritten rough draft schedule for the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans

Handwritten Rough Draft Schedule of the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans, Page 2 of 2 by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Second page of the handwritten schedule

Final Schedule National Salute to Vietnam Veterans (1982-08) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Final Draft of the schedule for the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans.

Request for the First Lady to Participate in the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans (1982-09-14) by Jan ScruggsU.S. National Archives

Request to have Mrs. Reagan at the candlelight vigil for the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans.

Request for President and First Lady, Page 2 of 2 (1982-09-29) by Elizabeth H. DoleU.S. National Archives

Overview of the responsibilities to be taken by Mrs. Reagan for the National Salute to Vietnam Veterans.

United States Department of the Interior Approval, page 1 of 2 (1982-09-29) by James WattU.S. National Archives

Final Approval for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

The United States Department of the Interior gave its final approval for groundbreaking, and the creation, of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

USDI Final Approval, Page 2 of 2 (1982-09-29) by James WattU.S. National Archives

Second page of the original approval.

Final United States Department of the Interior Approval (1982-10-04) by James WattU.S. National Archives

Final USDI approval to allow construction of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

11101982 President Reagan and Nancy Reagan at a memorial Service for Vietnam Veterans at National CathedralU.S. National Archives

President Reagan and the First Lady lighting candles at the candlelight vigil memorial service for Vietnam Veterans at National Cathedral

Front and Back of Pamphlet for walking the Vietnam Veterans Memorial by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Pamphlet on how to walk the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and how to find the names of deceased veterans.

Inside of Pamphlet for walking the Vietnam Veterans Memorial by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Inside the pamphlet.

Memorial design

Continuation of the Memorial design.

National Salute to Veterans, Program Cover (1982-11-10) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Program for National Salute to Vietnam Veterans.

National Salute to Veterans Program, Pages 1 & 2 (1982-11-10) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Opening page of the program souvenir

National Salute to Veterans Program, Pages 3 & 4 (1982-11-10) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Opening remarks by the Chairman of the Board and the President of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund.

National Salute to Veterans Program, Reagans' Note, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1982-11-10, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Letter from the President in support of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Memorial Mementos by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Souvenirs and mementos to raise funds for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Letter to President Reagan from Walter Westphall (1982-11-06) by Walter WestphallU.S. National Archives

Critical letter to President Reagan about his official recognition of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and that the other Vietnam Memorials are not officially recognized or acknowledged.

Blackwell's Response to Westphall (1983-01-27) by Morton C. BlackwellU.S. National Archives

Blackwell's response to Westphall's letter

Wheeler Letter to Reagan (1983-02-19) by John WheelerU.S. National Archives

John Wheeler wrote to thank President Reagan, and to affirm the success of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Cover Page (1983-09) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress

The VVMF report to Congress detailed how successful the fundraising for the Memorial went, and how popular the Vietnam Veterans Memorial had been.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 1 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Summary of how the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was created.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 2 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Continued summary of the creation and groundbreaking.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 3 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Future necessary construction and maintenance of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 4 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Continuation of the future construction and maintenance needed.

The problem of adding additional names to the Memorial is addressed at the bottom.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 5 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Continuation of the process of adding additional names to the Memorial.

The rest of the page goes into how the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund received its private funding.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 6 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Details of how the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund spent its private funding.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 7 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Itemized description of the future construction and maintenance needed for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 8 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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List of the Members of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Committee.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 9 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Top of the page goes into the audit by the IRS on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund.

Bottom of the page gives special recognition to veteran organizations in helping to raise the necessary funds.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress, Page 10 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Continuation of the special thanks to certain groups and people who helped raise significant funds for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Beginning of the final conclusion made by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund's Report to Congress Page, 11 of 11, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1983-09, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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"The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is already one of the most popular attractions in Washington; drawing up to fifteen thousand visitors daily. Only the National Air and Space Museum and the Lincoln Memorial attract more visitors."

11-11-1984 President Reagan at the podium during the dedication Ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Statue at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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President Reagan giving his speech at the Memorandum of Conveyance ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Memorandum Of Conveyance Note (1984-11) by Vietnam Veterans Memorial FundU.S. National Archives

Memorandum of Conveyance

This transferred the rights of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund to the United States Department of the Interior

Memorandum Of Conveyance, Page 1 of 6, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1984-11, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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The details of all the conditions needed by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund to complete the transfer of the rights to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial from the VVMF to the USDI.

Memorandum Of Conveyance, Page 2 of 6, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1984-11, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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"The design of the Memorial, like the war whose American soldiers it memorializes, has been controversial from the outset."

Memorandum Of Conveyance, Page 3 of 6, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1984-11, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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"Despite the early controversy of its design, the Memorial has succeeded in attracting the public far beyond anyone's original expectations."

Memorandum Of Conveyance, Page 4 of 6, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1984-11, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Beginning of the itemized conditions the USDI needed to follow to maintain the Memorial.

Memorandum Of Conveyance, Page 5 of 6, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1984-11, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Continuation of the conditions.

Memorandum Of Conveyance, Page 6 of 6, Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, 1984-11, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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The bottom half of the page is where the respective signatures for each dignitary belong to transfer the rights of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

11-11-1984 President Reagan at the podium during the dedication Ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Statue at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial with Nancy Reagan, John Warner, William Clark, Joan Clark and Caspar WeinbergU.S. National Archives

President Reagan signing the Memorandum of Conveyance.

11-11-1984 President Reagan signing during the dedication Ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Statue at the Vietnam Veterans MemorialU.S. National Archives

Second angle of President Reagan signing the Memorandum of Conveyance.

11-11-1984 President Reagan during the dedication Ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Statue at the Vietnam Veterans MemorialU.S. National Archives

President Reagan giving his speech at the Memorandum of Conveyance ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

President Reagan's speech script, which can be seen in the following slides.

Ceremony Vietnam Veterans War Memorial Speech Cards_Page_1, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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First page of President Reagan's speech at the Memorandum of Conveyance. The pages are marked up by President Reagan so he knew when to have a line break. The speech was written by Peggy Noonan.

Ceremony Vietnam Veterans War Memorial Speech Cards_Page_2, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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Ceremony Vietnam Veterans War Memorial Speech Cards_Page_7, From the collection of: U.S. National Archives
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President Reagan did not use a teleprompter; all markings and line-breaks were made by President Reagan.

The video is President Reagan reading this transcript, prior to the signing of the Memorandum of Conveyance.

Credits: Story

Exhibit: Ronald Reagan Presidential Library

This exhibit was created by Cole Puente

Special thanks to Mira Cohen, Carina Morgan, Carol Cohea, Michael Pinckney, Beth Calleros, Mike Duggan, Randy Swan, and Meredith Doviak

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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