Advanced Air MobilityNASA
Forces come in pairs. Newton’s 3rd Law says for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. An aircraft is a perfect real-world example of force pairs.
NASA Releases Concept Images of All-Electric X-57 in Final ConfigurationNASA
Even sitting on the ground, the plane exerts a force down on the ground and the ground exerts an equal force back up on the plane.
NASA's Super Guppy Transport cargo airplane takes off from the runwayNASA
Drag Demo by NASA / Eric JamesNASA
Drag is an aerodynamic force generated by the resistance of a body moving through a fluid (liquid or gas).
Jets push exhaust out the back of the engine, and thrust is produced in the opposite direction. Thrust must be greater than or equal to drag in order for the plane to move forward.
Visualization of the flow of NASA’s modified design of a complete DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter configuration in hover. by Patricia Ventura Diaz, NASA/AmesNASA
This quadcopter’s rotary blades produce enough reaction to thrust the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) off the ground. This vertical takeoff is referred to as EVTOL.
Illustration of a hybrid wing airplane with winds that blend into the body of the aircraftNASA
Lift from an airfoil: the air is pushed down by the airfoil’s action, and the wing is pushed up. Lift must meet or exceed the weight of the object to fly.
A Pilot in the cockpit of an aircraft at high altitudeNASA