Carlinhos Brown: "Gil's a father figure to me"

The singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist talks about the influence the great man has had on him and how he changed the history of Gil and the Salvador Carnival.

By Instituto Gilberto Gil

Interview: Chris Fuscaldo, journalist and music researcher

Carlinhos Brown met Gilberto Gil through his mother (Agosto de 2020)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown inherited his admiration for Gilberto Gil from his mother

What are your memories of first coming across Gilberto Gil?

Gilberto Gil e Carlinhos Brown durante show não identificado.Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

My mother introduced me to Gilberto Gil. I met him in person through a percussionist. Gil was allowing him some space, giving him an opportunity to shine up front. Straight away, he came along and got involved in the schemes I was running in my neighborhood.

Gilberto Gil, Carlinhos Brown, Caetano Veloso e Ivete Sangalo na gravação do programa Som Brasil (1998)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Then, Gil called me to do the soundtrack for a ballet for that great Senegalese choreographer (Germaine Acogny, the creator of the 1995 show Z, whose soundtrack was co-written by Gilberto Gil, Carlinhos Brown, and Rodolfo Stroeter).

Gilberto Gil and Carlinhos Brown in a show at the Trio Elétrico and at the afoxé Filhos de Gandhy parade (Fevereiro de 1996)Instituto Gilberto Gil

He agreed to one of my more outrageous suggestions, that he should perform at Carnival (Gil first appeared on the Expresso sound truck in 1998). I'd said the same thing to Caetano but he'd turned it down. But Gil did agree, and it was a movement that grew in strength.

Was Gil an important figure when you were a child?

Carlinhos Brown em show da turnê Eu, Tu, Eles, de Gilberto Gil (2000)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

I wasn't a musician but I loved music. And my mother—who was from a Pentecostal community—said: "Oh, so you like drumming." She didn't say anything about being a percussionist, no… The word she used was "drumming." And she said: "Your grandfather wouldn't like that very much because drumming has ties to Candomblé."

Gilberto Gil e Carlinhos Brown em apresentação no Hollywood Rock (1996-01-28)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Then she added: "I know a boy who does drumming. He's a lovely kid and lives near the church in Boqueirão." My mother saw him once, and after she had seen him on television, it was clear that, actually, that performer wasn't just a surprise for her, he was an idol in the making.

Gilberto Gil divide o palco com o artista brasileiro Carlinhos Brown e Herbert Vianna, vocalista da banda brasileira Os Paralamas do Sucesso, em seu show no Olympia (Junho de 1998)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Because he was different from what she was used to, coming from the church's stance. But, most of all, what interested her about Gil was that he was different from other Blacks. He was a Black man with some depth to him. Or, in other words, someone who'd had the time for academic studies.

Gilberto Gil e os músicos Caetano Veloso e Carlinhos Brown em show comemorativo dos 469 anos de Guadalajara, cidade mexicana (2011-02-10)Instituto Gilberto Gil

It was that intelligence and way of speaking that caught my mother's attention. After that, if drumming was what I loved, she wanted me to learn to do just that. 

Aside from Gil's attitude, did his music impress your mother?

Ministro da Cultura Gilberto Gil em solenidade de apresentação do projeto de restauração do Solar Araújo Pinho (2006-08-24)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

I was growing up. And I came from a family who were in service. My grandmother was a washerwoman, my mother was a washerwoman, and my neighborhood of Candeal, with all its matriarchy, was where people from the upmarket suburbs came looking for laundry services. They were considered to be the best washerwomen in the city.

Ministro da Cultura Gilberto Gil em solenidade de apresentação do projeto de restauração do Solar Araújo Pinho (2006-08-24)Instituto Gilberto Gil

This matriarchy is based on a kind of cultural assistance, and on those who, in turn, help the womenfolk. So, Gil never forgot his roots. despite having seen the world. He sang samba de roda songs, but his songwriting wasn't just going in that cultural direction, he was also bringing something new. 

Gilberto Gil e Caetano Veloso no show Tropicália Duo (1994)Instituto Gilberto Gil

My mother really loved that. And obviously, as a well-raised son, I'd learned to listen and respect what my mother was saying. Eventually, I become intrigued by his partner, Caetano.

Was it meeting Caetano that led you to Gil, both conceptually and physically?

O cantor e compositor Caetano Veloso durante apresentação no III Festival da Música Popular Brasileira da TV Record, mesma ocasião em que Gilberto Gil se apresentou com a música Domingo No Parque (Outubro de 1967)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Ensaio da música Alegria, Alegria por Caetano Veloso e Gilberto Gil para o show Tropicália 2

Carlinhos Brown:

When I first heard Caetano's Alegria, Alegria, it had an impact on me! And when I got home, I said: "Mom, there's this crazy thing! I've seen a song and I want one of those things!"

Gilberto Gil e a banda Os Mutantes à época do movimento tropicalista (1968)Instituto Gilberto Gil

I didn't even know what a TV was—they were just starting to appear in my neighborhood—but the thing had captured my imagination. But this longing for one seemed more reasonable once the neighborhood midwife decided to build a house so she could be nearby. Because her husband, Mr Joel, actually did TV repairs.

Gilberto Gil e o conjunto Os Mutantes durante apresentação no III Festival da Música Popular Brasileira da TV Record (Outubro de 1967)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Gilberto Gil canta Domingo No Parque ao vivo na USP

Watching on TV, I began to mix up Jair Rodrigues and Gilberto Gil, Simonal and Jair Rodrigues. Until Gil did Domingo no Parque. I watched that Song Contest and said: 'Wow! My mother's told me a lot about that singer, Mr Joel!'

How do you view Caetano and Gil?

Gilberto Gil e o cantor e compositor Caetano Veloso à época do movimento tropicalista (1968)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

I grew up knowing for sure that Gil was an inspirational Black man. That he was different. Most of all, though, Gil is different from Caetano—yet, at the same time, they seem like identical twins, right? Ibejis, as we say in the Northeast, or twins. They're brothers … They belong together like Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. They were born for this. 

Gilberto Gil e Caetano Veloso no show Tropicália Duo (1994)Instituto Gilberto Gil

They complement each other. Because, in a way, for them to have dealt with all this social education, and everything they've facilitated together, they knew that they'd need diametrically opposite opinions, ideas, and discussions. For example, I wrote the music with Gil for that Senegalese guy's ballet. 

Gilberto Gil e Caetano Veloso em fotos para o álbum Tropicália 2 (1993)Instituto Gilberto Gil

I hadn't written anything with Caetano, but it was Caetano who recorded me. He recorded Meia-lua Inteira because when I went round there and sang the song, he started crying. That was something that moved me a lot. 

Gilberto Gil e o cantor Caetano Veloso nos bastidores do evento Oi Noites Cariocas (2006-01-07)Instituto Gilberto Gil

The one thing I mightn't have told anyone before was that the capoeira feel in Meia-lua Inteira, the model for the tune is from the Northeast, but I wouldn't have done it without Gil. So, in a way, when Caetano recorded Meia-lua Inteira, he was recording Gilberto Gil. 

Gilberto Gil e Caetano Veloso na gravação do programa Amigos, Sons e Palavras, exibido pelo Canal Brasil, da Globosat (2018-04-18)Instituto Gilberto Gil

I simply put my name on the bottom. That's why he cried. And he said: "You're telling my story." And I wondered how. It's great for me to have the chance to pay them this tribute. Neither of them, Gil or Caetano, ever made me give up being Bahia.

And what was your relationship with them like early on in your music career?

Carlinhos BrownInstituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

By around 1986, more or less, I'd already joined a band called Acordes Verdes, having previously been with a rock group called Marrevolto. Acordes Verdes were also crazy about Gil so we recorded one of his songs called É. So I was already  into all that

Gilberto Gil e os músicos Caetano Veloso e Carlinhos Brown em show comemorativo dos 469 anos de Guadalajara, cidade mexicana (2011-02-10)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

They took the sound truck past Dedé and Caetano's front door in Ondina. And Caetano saw me playing on the truck and asked Paulinho Camafeu—who also happened to be Gil's drummer—who that kid, who was jumping around and playing like that, was.

Caetano Veloso em show da turnê Tropicália 2 (1993)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And Paulinho said: "He writes songs, too!" So, Caetano called me, through Paulinho, and said: "I want you to come and play with me. I'm about to go on tour for an extremely personal album. So I went, and I remember that Gil came to one of the concerts. And he was curious.

Which of Gil's albums impacted you most?

Capa do álbum Um Banda Um, de Gilberto Gil (1982)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

When he did (Um) Banda Um (1982), that was my vision of balance, post-Jorge Ben. After Gil, I was crazy about Jorge Ben. And I knew that they were friends. But Gil became a benchmark for taste. A stamp of quality. Gil and Caetano. 

Gilberto Gil com o cantor Caetano Veloso no show comemorativo Gil: 20 Anos-luz (Novembro de 1985)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And I had this thing about Gil and Caetano combining black and white. So I liked them even more. This would later become defined as a social value. Of a society that could come together. And the music of those two guys was leading us towards that. Some time later, I went to a concert,  wanting to meet Gil.

And how did you finally get to meet Gilberto Gil? 

Gilberto Gil em show da turnê O Eterno Deus Mu Dança (1990)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Once, Gil came to do a concert with Acordes Verdes as the opening act. That was at Salvador's Castro Alves Theater (in 1988). And I said: "Today's the day that I get to shake hands with that idol!" It was the first time I'd even been inside the Castro Alves Theater. It was also the day when I cried with emotion. 

Livreto do Show Gilberto Gil em Sinfonia Coral no teatro Castro Alves, produzido pela Escola de Música da Universidade Federal da Bahia de Música Livreto do Show Gilberto Gil em Sinfonia Coral no teatro Castro Alves, produzido pela Escola de Música da Universidade Federal da Bahia de Música (12/1/1994)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Because I had sold popsicles at the theater entrance, I'd gone to extraordinary lengths to get in. But I had never managed it. It was just for the elite of Bahia. For me, getting into the Castro Alves Theater was like climbing Mount Olympus or getting into the Oscars. And I just started filling up. 

Gilberto Gil em show da turnê O Eterno Deus Mu Dança (1990)Instituto Gilberto Gil

When I got to the theater, it was a historic day in my life, even Antônio Carlos Magalhães (the communications minister at the time) was there. And that was when I got to see the kind of person Gil is. The poet Ildásio Tavares grabbed Gil and said: "This guy did Canto pro Mar".

Gilberto Gil em show da turnê O Eterno Deus Mu Dança (1990)Instituto Gilberto Gil

"Now, will you see if there's room, Gil? He sings 'I sing for her because I love her'. That's wrong!" And Gil turned to him and said: "Your ass is wrong!" (laughter). Straight from the shoulder! And the guy's a great poet … I said: “Wow! This guy, Gil, is just like my dad! Just look at how he stood up for me!"

Gilberto Gil em show da turnê O Eterno Deus Mu Dança (1990)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And then he gave a lecture! He said: "You're an intellectual! Don't you know what a cacophony is? That's a neologism!" And he started talking about things I had never heard before! But he was talking to Ildásio, not to me, and I was just looking on, like a fool And that ended up getting Gil interested.

Gilberto Gil em participação no show da Timbalada (1990)Instituto Gilberto Gil

He came to Candeal, my home neighborhood. And he saw my band Vai Quem Vem, a kind of pre-Timbalada group. And, from then on, he started supporting Vai Quem Vem. And then he asked: "Where is Vai Quem Vem going?" An old VW van! 

The musician Carlinhos Brown performing at the Bahian carnival, during his visit to Camarote Expresso 2222, by Gilberto Gil and his wife and agent, Flora Gil (Fevereiro de 2020)Instituto Gilberto Gil

We practically inaugurated the Barra-Ondina parade, because there was still no Daniela Mercury around at that time, or anyone else! There was only Habeus Copus! And the place that had the space and wasn't too jam-packed for us to perform any new stuff. 

Was it when you were recording with Sérgio Mendes?

Gilberto Gil e Sérgio Mendes nos bastidores do festival Umbria Jazz, na Itália (2011-07-14)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

Gil noticed me first, then Sérgio Mendes. And Sérgio called me to record an album called Brasileiro. As incredible as it might seem, we did the album and we were talking about hip hop, but much more because of Jair Rodrigues than because of North American music. And do you want to know what happened? 

Divulgação de show de Gilberto Gil no Umbria Jazz Festival, quando se apresentou na mesma noite que Sérgio Mendes (2013-07-14)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Vai Quem Vem went to play with Sérgio Mendes and he ended up taking the world's first Grammy for hip hop! Ahead of the North Americans! They didn't give it to Tupac and they didn't give it to MC Hammer! Or to Dr. Dre! This was something historic, and people sometimes can't believe it actually happened.

Videoclip of the song Madalena (Entra Em Alley, Sai Em Alley), by Gilberto Gil (1992)Instituto Gilberto Gil

From then on, Gil was a regular visitor to Candeal, looking after people and targeting individuals that they could support. And then came his meeting with my mother and what does he do? He records Madalenaa song my mother loves, and it became a huge hit for him that summer (1992).

What has been the significance of Gil's work on your own work and on Brazilian music generally?

Cena do filme Refavela 40, em que Gilberto Gil participa de show homônimo em Salvador (2019)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

With all that, along came technology, and I said: "I'm revisiting Gil's work." With total respect for everyone, Gil is Brazilian music's greatest genius! Because he's the most original! Gil is real authenticity. Regardless of the Recôncavo, Bahia, Northeast issue … 

Gilberto Gil e Stevie Wonder nos bastidores de show em Washington nos anos 80 (1985)Instituto Gilberto Gil

He has this thing for enjoying life, enjoying the world … He's still the same whether he meets Fela Kuti, King Sunny Adé, or anyone else! Because he wasn't just what we call Afropop, he's World Music. And, at that moment, he wasn't this guy who was searching. He was the answer.

O músico em La Halle des Manifestations, França, durante a turnê Gilberto Gil in Concert (2006-07-17)Instituto Gilberto Gil

When I go over to France and Europe—wherever Caetano takes me … or rather, first, it was Djavan who took me—and I see who Gil was, that's what I want to be, more and more! 

Gilberto Gil durante show na França. (1990)Instituto Gilberto Gil

His albums, his collections refined my vision for music in a very effective way. These days, I work with a metronome but not many people would guess that it was Gil who introduced the metronome into Brazilian music. Very few people know that. 

Gilberto Gil, Raul Mascarenhas e Paulo Calasans na estréia do show "Quanta" no Canecão. (1997-04-24)Instituto Gilberto Gil

In other words, he provided the world's first quantum signal. Gil synched Brazilian popular music to the world! He laid the foundations for everything that came next. Nowadays, the world wouldn't exist without sync. He tuned the satellite when he said: "Around here, musicians are going to unite."

Gilberto Gil em show do álbum Extra (1983)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Gilberto Gil canta Extra em show da turnê do álbum Raça Humana

When Gil records reggae—with the greatest respect to the king Bob Marley—he didn't just follow in Bob Marley's footsteps. No, he was a new addition to world reggae. He added to world reggae, primarily because he did a three-way reggae, then, a triple reggae on Extra.

Gilberto Gil, Bem Gil e Carlinhos Brown durante durante gravação do programa Altas Horas (2010-06-12)Instituto Gilberto Gil

I don't know anyone like him. So, he's a kind of genius and it'd take me the rest of my life to tell you about all the improvements he's brought to our culture as a whole. 

Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, Carlinhos Brown and Liminha on the recordings of the album Tropicália 2 (1993-04-19)Instituto Gilberto Gil

You've already said that you were the one who brought Gil to the Carnival in Bahia. Tell us about that.

Documents from Gilberto Gil's Private ArchiveInstituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

After ten years of Axé music, Carnival was beginning to show signs of decline. That was when I set up my people's band Timbalada, inspired by my teachers. It was a parallel movement to Axé and it re-used Axé. 

Gilberto Gil com as filhas Nara Gil e Preta Gil na abertura do Carnaval de Salvador 2003 (2003-02-27)Instituto Gilberto Gil

On top of the sound truck, before we got to Ondina, I stopped what I was singing and I said: "Hey, Gil, come back next year and we'll do a sound truck featuring just you." And he said: "I don't fancy that." So I said: "Gee, I even spoke to Caetano and he said he didn't fancy it either." So Gil thought about it and agreed.

Gilberto Gil, a esposa e empresária Flora Gil e a neta Flor, filha de Bela Gil, assistem ao Carnaval de Salvador no camarote Expresso 2222 (2017-02-25)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And then he went to the viewing box and asked the people there. He did something extremely important because he really appreciated what we needed. He never had any commercial interests in any of that but he was interested in the human rapport side. 

Gilberto Gil e a esposa e empresária Flora Gil assistem ao Carnaval de Salvador no camarote Expresso 2222 (2017-02-26)Instituto Gilberto Gil

So, he also brought in this idea that Carnival was also a space for building relationships. And this was important because it reshaped the ambition. Because the viewing box itself looked like a club on the main thoroughfare. But how did that happen? 

No camarote Expresso 2222, Gilberto Gil assiste ao desfile do bloco Afoxé Filhos de Gandhy no Carnaval de Salvador (2019-03-04)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Firstly, it was marketing, with an outside brand showing up and then being able to invite other acquaintances. It was all about being seen in the city, and about the city boosting its brand at the same time. The visionary has ordinary eyes but looks through the lenses of thought, and Gil does think. That's it.

In your view, what difference did Gil make to the Salvador Carnival?

Gilberto Gil em show no Trio Elétrico Expresso 2222Instituto Gilberto Gil

One: it was the only viewing box which had its own sound truck and didn't charge to join the parade, and that set it apart. Two: he used the sound truck as a tool for progress. He managed to get the truck powered by solar power, by biodiesel … Experiments that still make that sound truck fly!

Gilberto Gil com Carla Cristina, Daniela Mercury e Margareth Menezes no Carnaval de Salvador (Fevereiro de 2003)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And by the fact that on his sound truck, you have a free playlist rather than one chosen by the samba block. He has this capacity for bringing things together. He helped Vai Quem Vem and the band started having hits! 

Gilberto Gil e o cantor e compositor Bell Marques no carnaval, durante apresentação no trio elétrico do grupo Chiclete Com Banana (Fevereiro de 2010)Instituto Gilberto Gil

It was at that moment, when he was a special guest, when he was in Ondina and, at the end of the circuit, he said: "This is just great! I'll do it!" And, from then on, I believe that Carnival got itself a new look.

Gil has this affection for the samba blocks…

Gilberto Gil, trajado de Filho de Gandhy, com o caxixi e o agogô, instrumentos característicos da cultura baiana (2020-02-25)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And that's without mentioning Filhos de Gandhy, the afoxé group, which was in crisis at the time. That's funny, right? It seems Gil always turns up when there's a crisis! So he can solve things! The Filhos de Gandhy were going to fold if it hadn't been for Gil (in 1972). And he rescues them, he improves everything, he writes those lovely songs, he finds them a great songwriter in Caixão, and he does all these fantastic things.

Carlinhos Brown e Gilberto Gil durante o Carnaval em Salvador (Fevereiro de 2009)Instituto Gilberto Gil

I'm just so happy to have this teacher, this father figure. He took me to the Unicamp Orchestra—the  first time I played with a symphony orchestra was with Gil and the conductor Benito Juarez. So, he's been a pioneer in so many ways in my life, and at very particular moments. That's why I still call him father, even now.

It's a relationship that is very close to yours. Almost karmic.

Gilberto Gil com o cantor e percussionista Carlinhos Brown durante durante gravação do programa Altas Horas (2010-06-12)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

He calls me Braúna, which comes from the word Baraúna, which is a tree also known as Brazilian ironwood because, strangely enough, nothing can break its wood.

Documents from Gilberto Gil's Private ArchiveInstituto Gilberto Gil

There's a really nice story I'd like to tell you. Once, during Carnival, when Gil was culture minister, he was in the viewing box. I arrived on a sound truck in front of his box. Everything was nice and peaceful but I saw this cop on the blind side of the truck and he was hitting a kid who was just dancing.

Documents from Gilberto Gil's Private ArchiveInstituto Gilberto Gil

So, I asked him to stop and he did. So I then yelled: "Globo, Bandeirantes, Gil, any of you, just look at how the police are treating people! The dictatorship might be over for you, but not for the people!" And then it got crazy, and I actually said the word apartheid, which was never even uttered in Brazil.

Documents from Gilberto Gil's Private ArchiveInstituto Gilberto Gil

The press managed to twist everything and it came out that I had fallen out with Gil. While, in reality, it wasn't Gil I was asking. It was the culture minister. I was asking for help from someone who could help people. And I was asking, too, because I'd already been through a lot, just for being who I am.

Gilberto Gil, sua esposa e empresária, Flora Gil, e o cantor e compositor Carlinhos Brown durante café da manhã em Salvador (2011)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Then, I was in the viewing box and he came to see me. I was so excited. I knelt down and sang Pequei, Senhor. A song that says: "Oh, my Father, have mercy…" A song by Mateus Aleluia, from the band Os Tincoãs. That was really powerful and moving. It was a big moment during that Carnival.

Gilberto Gil com o cantor e percussionista Carlinhos Brown durante durante gravação do programa Altas Horas (2010-06-12)Instituto Gilberto Gil

A few idiots kept saying that we had fallen out but Gil said: "No way! He is a freedom fighter! Can't you see that?" He was aware. He has a lot of empathy, he understands the pain others are feeling. Where everyone had their own understanding of what happened, or just wanted to fan the flames, he removed the bait.

Gilberto Gil saúda os Filhos de Gandhy durante o carnaval 2020 em Salvador (2020-02-24)Instituto Gilberto Gil

And do you know what happened? From then on, the very next year, the police started wearing numbers. Job done! Because the guys going out there and doing bad stuff needed to be identified. And this was key in controlling the violence.

In your opinion, what is the main thing that Gilberto Gil has taught people?

Gilberto Gil com o cantor e compositor Caetano Veloso em Londres, durante o período do exílio (Dezembro de 1969)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Carlinhos Brown:

This hope that they (Gil and Caetano) end up spitting on everyone is just information off the radio. Because they talk in music, in tunes, in sounds, and onomatopoeia, which not even the greatest scholars can understand, because you have to have a sense of rhythm to understand the language Caetano and Gil use.

Gilberto Gil e os músicos Caetano Veloso e Carlinhos Brown nos bastidores do show comemorativo dos 469 anos de Guadalajara, cidade mexicana (2011-02-10)Instituto Gilberto Gil

You don't have to be learned. But you do need a holistic, spiritual vibe and the ability to decipher rhythm because Gil and Caetano speak the language of the drum.  They're a pair of word percussionists. And that's what sets them so much apart. It's part of their gift, they were chosen. And for the chosen ones, there are only the excluded, because they will comforted by them.

Gilberto Gil at his home in Bahia during a musical meeting with Carlinhos Brown (2020-01-23)Instituto Gilberto Gil

Credits: Story

Interview and video editing: Chris Fuscaldo
Editor: Ceci Alves
Assembly: Carla Peixoto 

General credits  

Editor and curator:
Chris Fuscaldo / Garota FM Edições
Music content research: Ceci Alves, Chris Fuscaldo, Laura Zandonadi, and Ricardo Schott 
Culture Ministry (MinC) content research: Carla Peixoto, Ceci Alves, and Chris Fuscaldo
Photo captions: Anna Durão, Carla Peixoto, Chris Fuscaldo, Daniel Malafaia, Fernanda Pimentel, Gilberto Porcidonio, Kamille Viola, Laura Zandonadi, Lucas Vieira, Luciana Azevedo, Patrícia Sá Rêgo, Pedro Felitte, Ricardo Schott, Roni Filgueiras, and Tito Guedes
Data editor: Isabela Marinho and Marco Konopacki
Gege Produções redaction: Cristina Doria
Acknowledgments: Gege Produções, Gilberto Gil, Flora Gil, Gilda Mattoso, Fafá Giordano, Maria Gil, Meny Lopes, Nelci Frangipani, Cristina Doria, Daniella Bartolini, all the photographers, and all those who have played a part in this story
All media: Instituto Gilberto Gil 

*Every effort has been made to credit the images, audio tapes, and video files and to accurately convey the stories told in the exhibits. If you find any errors and/or omissions, please email 

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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