The mid-nineteenth century was an era of territorial and ideological expansion. Elected presidents and absolute monarchs alike shifted political borders and social practices by reason or by force. The belief in “Manifest Destiny” spurred Americans to crisscross the country north to south and east to west in coal-driven locomotives at breathtaking speeds of twenty miles an hour. Famine and political turmoil forced millions of Irish, German, and Scandinavian immigrants to cross the Atlantic for homesteads in the United States. Gold fever drove pioneers west. They traveled overland in covered wagons along treacherous trails in hopes of striking it rich, establishing townships along the way and forcing American Indians to abandon thriving communities for barren reservations.
The vast British Empire, ruled by Queen Victoria (r. 1837–1901), stretched across the globe, incorporating parts of India, Africa, Australia, and Canada. Under the guise of “civilizing” natives, Britain chose its colonies for their potential to increase the riches of Her Majesty’s Treasury through agricultural success or maritime access. Victoria and her consort, Prince Albert (1819–1861), were a political and familial power couple, embodying the model Victorian lifestyle. The sexes maintained rigidly defined gender roles: gentlemen dominated public affairs and business while ladies presided over home and hearth. Some women, though, rejected the domestic sphere of childrearing and needlework to pursue careers in education, science, and medicine, slowly approaching the possibility of independent living.
Science and industry made great advances. The electric telegraph allowed long-distance communication in real time. Structural engineering replaced bricks and mortar with rivets and steel, resulting in towering seven-story buildings. Such inventiveness led to nationalistic competition: 6 million people visited the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations of 1851 in London’s Hyde Park, which showcased the world’s latest manufactured novelties under one massive steel and glass structure. Fashion was a focus of innovation: American inventor Isaac Singer (1811–1875) patented a sewing machine in 1851, while Britain’s William Henry Perkin (1838–1907) discovered the first synthetic dye in 1856. That same year, W.S. Thomson (active 1850s–1870s) patented the steel cage crinoline that swelled skirts to astonishing widths.
Multiple wars forced men to trade top hats and tailored suits for muskets and military uniforms as political power clashed with social reform. Europe’s Crimean War (1853–1856) was the first battle covered by photojournalists; periodicals and newspapers brought gruesome combat images to a horrified public. Tensions over slavery divided the United States, culminating in the Civil War (1861–1865); the practice was finally abolished in 1863 with Abraham Lincoln’s (1809–1865) Emancipation Proclamation. Though new workplace regulations, governmental reform, and civic awareness expanded people’s rights in theory, child labor, bureaucratic corruption, and racial segregation continued to plague a culture obsessed with money and status.
Day Gown Day Gown (1841/1842)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Female fashions of the 1840s often seems somber and plain, especially when compared to the exuberance of the 1830s. This charming dress refutes that misconception with its striking, eighteenth-century-inspired textile, button rosettes, and tasseled cording.
Day Gown Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The French fabric was made on a Jacquard loom and includes a combination of moiré faille and satin weaves with chiné printing. Its pastel palette and vertical stripes were inspired by fashionable silks of the 1780s. The powder blue, floss-wrapped wires trimming the bodice and skirt also reference the Ancien Régime’s love of abundant passementerie.
Day Gown DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The dress features long, bias-cut sleeves basted under short sleeves; they are removable to alter the bodice from daywear into evening attire. Padding at the bust and a twenty-inch waist suggest that this dress was worn by a slender young lady whose figure had not yet matured fully.
Bonnet Bonnet (1843/1847)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
After the exuberant, wide-brimmed bonnets of the 1830s, the face-shielding millinery of the 1840s was quite severe in style. Though not necessarily less decorative, the trimmings decreased in amplitude, as the wearer’s range of vision lessened. Often compared to the blinders on a horse by satirists, this bonnet shape obscured the lady’s profile.
Bonnet Side ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Embellishments varied, but long, patterned ribbon ties at the chin, bows or cloth flowers on the sides, and a sun shielding neck ruffle called a bavolet were standard.
Bonnet Back ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The importance of correct, fashionable headwear was stressed by Mrs. M.J. Howell in her 1847 guide The Hand-Book of Millinery: “A cap, or a bonnet, should not be considered merely as a covering for the head, but also as an ornament...to render more interesting the countenance on which nature has lavished her most lovely graces.” 
Bonnet Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
This cream-on-cream version may have been intended for a bride, whose countenance would have been veiled by lace draped over its protruding brim.
Wedding Gown DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
White and ivory were not always usual for wedding gowns, and only became so with the 1840 marriage of Queen Victoria (1819–1901) to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1819–1861). Victoria represented not only the vast British Empire, but also the contemporary ideal of virtuous womanhood. Her wedding continues to set the tone for bridal ceremonies today.
Previously, wedding gowns came in a rainbow of hues and they were worn for many years afterwards, periodically updated to keep abreast of fashion. Few women could afford to wear a garment only once and then put it away as a remembrance.
Wedding Gown DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
This Jacquard silk pattern of paired butterflies is an unusual motif—an early example of Japonisme—symbolically representing officiants at a wedding, fluttering before the newlyweds on their journey into a future full of happiness. 
Transformation Gown Day EnsembleFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Iridescence in textiles is achieved by weaving warp and weft threads of different colors—in this example, violet and royal blue silk. Known as “shot” or “changeant,” dresses made of these shimmering taffetas were extremely popular in 1845 and 1846.
Equally stylish was the fan-front bodice of diagonal pleats converging in a sharp point below the natural waist, creating an ideal, elongated torso.
Transformation Gown Evening EnsembleFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Robes à la transformation could be altered from daywear into eveningwear by removing the detachable sleeves.
Accessories complete this ensemble: for evening, a peaked Gothic Revival headdress mimics the deep bodice point, just as its curled ribbons echo the era’s fashionable corkscrew hairstyle.
Transformation Gown Day Ensemble DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
For day, a bonnet shields the face from sunlight, while the chemisette and neck ribbon lend decorum to the low neckline.
Miser's Purse (1840/1849)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Human Hair was braided, twisted and woven into sentimental tokens during the nineteenth century. Hair work was a parlor pastime suitable for ladies, who used lace-making bobbins to transform the tresses of family members and friends into jewelry and, occasionally, accessories.
Locks could also be sent to specialty workrooms where they were transformed into articles of one’s choice. Yet this practice was risky, as it was rumored that unscrupulous businessmen sometimes augmented thin or brittle hair with supplements imported from India, or even horse hair. In this example, brunette strands were knitted into a miser’s purse, so called because of the difficulty of removing coins from its narrow center opening.  This delicate lady’s bag is more symbolic than utilitarian.
Hair work was thought particularly appropriate as memento mori because it does not degrade. Black enameled gold center rings and tear-shaped droplets confirm that this piece was a mourning keepsake, likely made from the long hair of a recently deceased woman.
Day Gown Back DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Variations in weave structure result in contrasting dye saturation on this printed silk day gown. The patterns are rendered lightly over the gossamer gauze and densely on the vertical twill stripes. Comma-shape botehs are ancient Indian motifs, abstracted representations of shrubbery that were more generally woven into nineteenth-century cashmere shawls.
The bodice showcases the decade’s popular “pagoda” sleeves; their shape emulates the dramatically flared roofs of Chinese temples. The bodice is lined, but its sleeves and skirt are semitransparent, requiring additional clothing layers for decorum’s sake.
Day Gown Three-Quarter ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Necessity and opportunity converged in these cotton mull undersleeves, which protected delicate dress fabric from body perspiration and oils, but also afforded an opportunity to display refined needlework, either rendered by the wearer herself or procured from a high-end mercer. The lightweight silk was as practical as it was fashionable, a sensible choice for sweltering summer days.
Boy’s Ensemble Short-Sleeved Bodice DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Ages five and six were transitional for boys. Many wore skirts and pantalets while under the care of a mother or nursemaid. This three-piece boy’s ensemble is a hybrid, having characteristics of both female and male fashions.
It is made from iridescent silk taffeta, influenced by Queen Victoria’s (1819–1901) fondness for Scottish tartan. The material is unusual for a male child, as it is a type generally used for women’s gowns; perhaps this outfit was made from the re-purposed yardage of a vast skirt.
Boy’s Ensemble Long-Sleeved BodiceFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The two surviving bodices are rare: one is masculine in its tailoring, a waist-length jacket trimmed with buttons in military formation over the little torso, emphasizing a broad chest. The other is feminine in style: cut on the diagonal, the pattern forming a V-shape at center front, optically creating the appearance of a small waist.
Additionally, the hem flounce echoes the skirt ruffles then in fashion for women. Often, young boys wore short pants called breeches. Being “breeched” referred to the exchange of skirts for bifurcated garments. This pair is ankle-length, cut in exactly the same way as adult men’s trousers.
Girl’s Bonnet & Bandbox Side ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
This girl's bonnet is unusual not only for its striking appearance, but because its provenance is fully documented. The bold color combination of sky blue and lemon yellow reveals that not all Victorian era fashions were subdued, or that intensely bright hues were only available after the invention of synthetic dyes in 1856.
The intended owner of this bonnet was Sarah Elizabeth Craft (1841–1852), who lived in Ireland Parish (now Holyoke), Massachusetts.
Girl’s Bonnet & Bandbox Band BoxFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Purchased as a Christmas present to be worn the following spring for Easter services, the gift was never opened, as Sarah died on the twentieth of December.
Girl’s Bonnet & Bandbox Band Box Lid InteriorFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
After her death, Sarah’s cherished possessions—her dolls, needlework, and letters—as well as this bonnet with its original bandbox were packed into a small wooden trunk and placed in an attic, where they stayed until their discovery more than a century later.
SlippersFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
These luxurious slippers are embroidered with roses and leaves in chenille, French for “caterpillar.” The costly yarn is formed by interspersing short filaments at right angles between longer strands and twisting them together, giving the finished yarn a thick, fuzzy pile, similar in appearance to its insect namesake. In this example, white chalk was used to mark the floral design on black velvet, which was then embellished by hand prior to being sewn.
Slippers DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Called “morning slippers,” they were worn at home before switching to sturdier boots for afternoon shopping or calling on friends.  The velvet pile is abraded at the toe from constantly brushing against the front hem of a skirt, though the lack of scuff marks on the thin leather soles reveals that their owner did not venture outside while wearing them.
Boots (1850/1855)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Women of the mid-nineteenth century had two choices when it came to footwear: flat slippers or ankle boots. These luxurious boots were almost certainly custom made to match a gown. Typical for the period, the leather soles lack left or right definition. Though sturdier leather boots were available for the popular pastime of “pedestrianism,” most female footwear was made of less substantial materials. 
An 1853 article in the Philadelphia-based Home Magazine rallied against “satin or paper thin soles when the condition of the streets requires a warmer, stouter, and more impervious covering for the feet.” Delicate silk boots such as these likely did not venture far from a polished or carpeted floor.
Fan-Parasol Upright ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Fashion-conscious females of the nineteenth century contended with myriad accessories, many of them specifically designed to be held in the hand: fans, parasols, walking sticks, and muffs, among others. This hybrid object is an innovative combination fan and parasol, which could be transformed according to a lady’s needs.
Probably used while riding in an open carriage, its owner held the fan in front of her face to deflect a breeze, or simply tilted the shade perpendicular for protection on a sunny day.
Fan-Parasol Tilted ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Such sun shields were necessary for protecting pale complexions against browning; suntans would not be socially acceptable for another seventy years.
Fan-Parasol Closed ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The pleated silk and lace-trimmed paper cockade can be folded down and hinged back against the lacquered, turned-wood handle, creating a compact object easily tucked inside a purse.
Fan Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Like gloves, fans were most often acquired through parfumeries and came pre-doused with the latest scents. The eighteenth century was the height of fan production as an art form. In the mid-nineteenth century, fashion and the decorative arts rediscovered and revived the ornate aesthetic sense of the Baroque, Regency, Rococo, and Neoclassical periods.
This hand-painted fan exemplifies what was often referred to as the “cult of Marie Antoinette.”  The pastoral scenes include innocuous images of lounging shepherdesses and courtiers. At center of both the leaf and the sticks, a gentleman kneels to ask for his favorite’s hand, suggesting this fan was made for a wedding.
Fan DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The gilt foliage and colorful scrollwork surrounding the leaf are reminiscent of the iron tracery and plaster moldings found in interior decorations. The guards and sticks are masterfully carved from nacre, the delicate, iridescent inner lining of pearl-bearing mollusks. Only the most highly trained artisans executed the intricately pierced, incised, and sculpted figures with the precision seen on this example.
Canezou Jacket (1853/1857)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
This transparent jacket— a style called a canezou — is a mix of both hand workmanship and mechanization. Because the textile and trim industries were fully industrialized by the mid-nineteenth century, the centuries-old handmade lace tradition was rapidly disappearing, threatened with extinction by technology. As a result, real lace—which is extremely time consuming to create and expensive to purchase—was often replaced by nearly identical imitation versions.
Yards of real Chantilly and blonde laces were sewn over a base of machine-made net to create this jacket, which also incorporates mass-produced trimmings: velvet ribbon, chenille, and French jet—a black glass that resembles real jet, the gemstone derived from petrified coal that was mined in Whitby, England.
Daguerreotype (1853/1857)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Chantilly lace was popular in the Second Empire (1852–70) due to its frequent appearance in Empress Eugénie’s (1826–1920) wardrobe. Eugénie was born in Spain and although the black, floral lace was made just outside of Paris, it was thought to have a particularly Spanish flavor. Sheer canezous were worn over light colored, plainly woven dresses to highlight their delicate patterns and trims.
Ball Gown Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
This Parisian ball gown dates to the Second Empire (1852–1870), the opulent reign of Emperor Napoléon III and Empress Eugénie.
Ball Gown DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Nineteenth-century France witnessed great advances in industrial technology, many of them connected to the Lyon textile industry, which produced the Jacquard silk of this ball gown.
Ball Gown Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Stylistically, art and fashion looked back to pre-Revolutionary France for design inspiration, particularly the courts of Louis XV (r. 1715–1774) and Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette (r. 1774–1792), whom Eugénie admired. The crisp, pinked flounces create a voluminous skirt that echoes the hooped court gowns of the eighteenth century.
Ball Gown Ball Gown (1854/1856)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The low-cut bodice appears to be falling off the wearer’s shoulders, revealing her delicate silk net and lace chemise. In actuality, this hint of undergarment is a decorative band attached to the neckline. Such nostalgic charm and elegance was short-lived, vanishing with the empire’s overthrow and the mob’s destruction of the Tuileries and Saint-Cloud palaces.
Photographic Stereograph (1856/1860)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Patented in 1856 by the American inventor W.S. Thomson (active 1850s–1870s), the lightweight, flexible cage crinoline was a welcome relief for women who had suffered under heavy, cumbersome layers of ruffled cotton, starched linen, and quilted wool petticoats. 
Crinoline production was directly linked to industrialization: the same machinery used to manufacture steel railways, bridges, and buildings was used to fabricate this undergarment.
Photographic Stereograph (1856/1860)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Despite commercial success, satirists derided its expanding girth. Though taking up too much room on omnibuses, entangling on fences and balustrades, and, more seriously, catching fire near open hearths, crinolines retained popularity for more than a decade. 
These stereograph cards illustrate some of the difficulties women encountered while wearing cage crinolines. They were viewed with hand-held stereoscopes, devices that caused the humorous images to appear three-dimensional.
Ambrotype (1854/1857)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Nineteenth-century urban living was a grimy endeavor. Businessmen encountered soot belching from factory smokestacks and dust clouds raised by horse-drawn omnibuses; black wool frock coats and trousers masked these unavoidable marks of the metropolis.
Man's Frock Suit (1858/1862)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
A dark tailored suit-appropriately accessorized—was the male uniform of civility. Mid-century gentlemen did not leave the house without headwear, the most popular being the top hat, also called a “stovepipe” or “chimney.”
Passing fads helped stylish men avoid homogeneity: gloves came in multiple colors; collars could be straight, curved, or intricately notched; and vests were jubilantly patterned with flowers or geometric shapes.
Cutaway Coat, Inside Out, Detail (1848/1852)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Menswear was the first clothing to be machine-sewn in the mid-nineteenth century. Standard sized, ready-to-wear suits were much less expensive than bespoke attire, although customers often sacrificed fit for savings. This cutaway coat is the antithesis of mechanized mass-production.
The coat was entirely hand-sewn and must have been an expensive addition to the gentleman’s wardrobe. Its minute and regular stitches are the sign of a well-trained tailor. The felled wool is finely woven; its dense, fray-resistant surface eliminates the need for overcast stitching or binding. Interior pad-stitching is common in high-quality coats from this era. Generally, parallel lines of stitching anchored the silk lining to an underlying layer of cotton wadding that provided warmth, as well as broadened the chest.
In this example (worn by a groom on his wedding day), the technique was used for decorating the interior side panels and tail flaps with flowering vines—symbolic of everlasting devotion. Floral themes were not solely relegated to female dress; menswear often incorporated embroidered, printed, or woven foliage, usually appearing on vests.
Collar and Cravat Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
"Industrial Revolution" is an apt term for the Western world’s radical transition from an agricultural economy to a technological one in which machines outpaced the production of human labor, providing more commodities at lower cost to a larger percentage of the population.
New inventions were introduced daily; some changed the world while others faded into history. This man’s enameled steel collar and vulcanized rubber bowtie was a substitute for starched linen and silk neckwear. Created by steel refiners Marriott & Atkinson of Sheffield, England, it is a rare survivor among patented fashion articles that did not catch the popular imagination. 
Collar and Cravat Collar Label DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Though wearing a metal collar might seem impractical—even harmful—companies advertising similar designs bragged that they were easy to sponge clean and cost-effective, as they did not have to be replaced like worn-out linen. 
Collar and Cravat Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The black bowtie was called a “cravat” by its New York-based creator, William W. Beach (1828-?), and stamped “Goodyear,” the company that later became famous for manufacturing car tires.  Sensibly, steel collar wearers were warned to watch out for that “dangerous element, electricity, in the shape of lightning.” 
Vest Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Male attire was configured into a standard three-piece suit consisting of a jacket, vest, and trousers, whether worn for business daywear, country sportswear, or formal eveningwear. This vest, with an amusing novelty pattern of brocaded dice strewn across the wearer’s chest, added variety to a man’s wardrobe, revealing an interest in games of chance.
Vest DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Though dice were an unusual textile motif, Victorian men were encouraged to be risk takers in both business and personal affairs. The vest could have been worn as informal sporting wear at a resort such as Saratoga Springs, New York, or Newport, Rhode Island, where gambling was a continual activity for restless men-about-town.
Man’s Slippers (1860/1869)FIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Embroidering homewares and fashionable accessories in wool on canvas was a popular pastime for leisured ladies of the mid-Victorian era. Thousands of needlework patterns were exported from Germany to Britain, France, and the United States, where the technique was known as “Berlin wool work.”
Designs consisted of colored squares printed onto gridded paper; each hue corresponded to a matching tent stitch to be worked on meshed canvas. Such patterns were acquired from fancy-goods emporiums or through mail-order advertisements in ladies’ magazines.  Popular wool work motifs included flowers, pastoral scenes, and biblical themes, in addition to sentimental phrases. The colors and highly symbolic imagery on these man’s at-home slippers indicate that they were worn for mourning: lavender was appropriate for later stages of grief and white lilies symbolized heavenly purity.
“Remembrance” is spelled out on banners laid across each vamp, partially covering the floral arrangements suggestive of graveside displays. Six colors of glass beads lend a three-dimensional effect to this handwork, causing the banners to appear creased and shadowed.
Baby’s Bonnet Back ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte III (1808-1873), nephew of Napoléon I, sponsored a major urban renewal project in Paris during his reign (r. 1852–1870). The massive undertaking was overseen by Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann (1809–1891), who was directed to transform the city into the most modern and beautiful metropolis in the world. Thousands of people were displaced as Haussmann razed historic districts to widen thoroughfares. Older structures left standing in the wake of “Haussmannization” were given new marble facades to better conform to the grand imperial vision. 
Baby’s Bonnet Label DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
The Boulevard Haussmann was specifically planned to be a major shopping destination, and it quickly became lined with new department stores offering exclusive specialty fashion goods. This luxurious baby’s bonnet is stamped in gilt with two addresses: “Anciennt Bd Des Capucines” and “Actuellement 37 Boulevard Haussmann 37”—communicating the shop’s old and new street names during this transitional time.
Girl’s Ensemble Front ViewFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Pink for girls and blue for boys is a twentieth-century adage; these colors were not always gendered this way. During the nineteenth century, pink was seen as a shade of red: a forceful color aligned with traditional masculinity and thus appropriate for growing boys. Blue was symbolic of the Virgin Mary and conventional femininity, making this dainty shade suitable for little girls.
Colors aside, young girls and boys alike were clad in skirts as a testament to their residency in the nursery, a feminine realm of mothers and nursemaids.
Girl’s Ensemble Back DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Clothing construction was gender specific: girls’ dresses buttoned up the back, training them to require help dressing, while boys’ had center front closures, preparing them to be self sufficient.
Girl’s Ensemble DetailFIDM MUSEUM & GALLERIES
Both the hand-embroidered blue butterflies fluttering around this ensemble and its back-fastening bodice confirms that it was made for a little girl. The butterfly motif has long signified the transience of childhood: youngsters grow quickly into adults, just as butterflies metamorphose from caterpillars. Significant, too, is the suggestion of chasing butterflies, a spring pastime traditionally depicted as part of childhood play.
1. M. J. Howell. The Hand-Book of Millinery (London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., 1847), ii.
2. G. Mensching. Buddhistische Symbolils (Gotha, 1929) in Siegfried Wichmann. Japonisme: The Japanese Influence on Western Art in the 19th and 20th Centuries (New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1985), 93.
3. These purses have come to be known as miser’s purses, although Victorians commonly called them “gentlemen’s purses” or “long purses.” Laura Camerlengo, “The Victorian Miser’s Purse” in the Nineteenth Century, Volume 30, Number 1 (November 2010), 17–21.
4. Nancy Rexford. Women’s Shoes in America 1795–1930 (Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2000), 104.
5. “A Seasonable Hint” in Home Magazine (December 1853), 477.
6. Edmond de Goncourt and Jules de Goncourt. Historie de Marie-Antoinette (Paris: G. Charpentier, 1879).
7. Otto Charles Thieme, et al. With Grace and Favor: Victorian and Edwardian Fashion in America (Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993), 37.
8. “The Excessive use (or abuse?) of crinoline, stiffened petticoats, &c., has produced the following letter from the proprietor and conductor of an omnibus: ‘This fashion, being ruinous to his profession from the fact that his omnibus containing twenty places can only hold four persons…please alter the tariff of the places, and allow to that ladies wearing crinolines should pay three francs the course, instead of 50 centimes (half a franc).’” in The Ladies’ Companion and Monthly Magazine, volume VII (London, 1855), 217–218.
9. Francis White and Company. White’s 1857 Directory of Derbyshire (Leeds, England: James Ward Publisher, 1857), 972.
10. Ray B. Browne and Lawrence A. Kreiser, Jr. The Civil War and Reconstruction (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003), 49.
11. The authors thank patent researcher Mike Woshner for this information. See FIDM
Museum Registrar’s office for digital files of patent sheets.
12. Harper’s Weekly: A Journal of Civilization (October 31, 1863), 704.
13. Linda Cluckie. The Rise and Fall of Art Needlework: Its Socio-Economic and Cultural Aspects (Suffolk, UK: Arena Books, 2008), 60–61.
14. Colin Jones. Paris: The Biography of a City (New York: Penguin Books, 2004), 320.
© FIDM Museum & Library, Inc.
Kevin L. Jones and Christina M Johnson. FABULOUS! Ten Years of FIDM Museum Acquisitions, 2000-2010. Los Angeles: FIDM Museum Publications, 2010.
Photography by Brian Sanderson.
Images made available for limited non-commercial, educational, and personal use only, or for fair use as defined in the United States copyright laws. Users must cite the author and source of the image as they would material from any printed work, and the citations should include the URL “www.fidmmuseum.org”. For publication or press requests, visit http://www.fidmmuseum.org/about/rights-and-reproductions/ or email imagerights@FIDMmuseum.org.