Within and Beyond the Walls of Intramuros: Documenting Manila in 1919

Intramuros wallsIntramuros Administration

Within and Beyond the Walls of Intramuros: Documenting Manila in 1919:
It was 20 years since the Philippines was under the American Regime. Manila is transforming to adapt to modern needs under Architect Daniel Burnham. This photo exhibit is taken from an album entitled, “Manila, 1919”, donated to the Intramuros Administration by the Ongpin Family. Here we see the condition of Intramuros and its neighboring districts during the American Colonial Period. It was an era of prosperity, which continued to flourish until the destruction brought about by the Second World War. Most of the buildings in this exhibit do not exist anymore. In this album, we see the architectural, cultural and artistic legacy of the Spanish Colonial Period through the lens of the changing times and the rising edifices of the new order of things.

Church of San AgustinIntramuros Administration

Intramuros was host to the different orders’ mother churches in the Philippines. The Augustinians, the first order that arrived in the Philippines, has the oldest church in the county. The baroque stone church was completed in 1607.

Church of San Francisco de AssisiIntramuros Administration

The Franciscans were second to arrive in the Philippines. The baroque structure in the photo was built in 1738, the third church built on the site. The church was the center of devotion to St. Anthony of Padua.

Chapel of the Venerable Third OrderIntramuros Administration

The neoclassic chapel stands in a compound together with the Church of San Francisco. The structure in the photo is a result of reconstructions and expansions done after the chapel sustained damages caused by earthquakes.

San Juan de Dios HospitalIntramuros Administration

It is the oldest hospital in the Philippines. Initiated by the Franciscans, it was primarily a hospital for the poor. Pay patients were admitted with the dawn of the American occupation. In 1913, it established its School of Nursing.

Monasterio de Sta. ClaraIntramuros Administration

Founded in 1621, it is the oldest Catholic monastery in Asia. This photo by a US Army might be a forbidden peek into the fabled convent of the Poor Clares. The nuns are separated and hidden from the rest of the world by this high windowless wall.

Church of San Nicolas de TolentinoIntramuros Administration

The church is the headquarters of the Order of Augustinian Recollects in Asia. The structure in the photo was built in 1881, after previous versions of the church were destroyed by earthquakes.

Manila CathedralIntramuros Administration

Here we see the cathedral in its state before WWII. The upper part, painted white is made of wood. This view is from the ground where the Governor-General’s Palace used to stand.

Church of Our Lady of LourdesIntramuros Administration

It is the last to be built among the churches of Intramuros before WWII. It was finished in 1897, shortly before the start of the American regime. It was established by the Franciscan Capuchins.

The Miguel de Benavides Monument and Sto. Domingo ChurchIntramuros Administration

The monument of the founder of the University of Sto. Tomas was inaugurated in 1891. It stands on the plaza facing the school, the oldest learning institution in the country. In the background is the Sto. Domingo Church.

Collegio de San Juan de LetranIntramuros Administration

Collegio de San Juan de Letran was established in 1630 as a result of the merging of two similar institutions inside Intramuros. Like Sto. Tomas, it was built under the patronage of the Dominican Order.

Collegio de Sta. IsabelIntramuros Administration

Established in 1632, it is one of the oldest schools for girls in the world. Initially, it is an exclusive institution for orphaned Spanish girls - daughters of soldiers who died in service. In 1728, it opened its doors to Filipinas.

Collegio de Sta. RosaIntramuros Administration

It was originally named Beaterio y Casa de Enseñanza. The school was established in 1750 for the education of orphaned Filipinas.

Ateneo de Manila in IntramurosIntramuros Administration

The American occupation transformed the 19th century school. From being government-subsidized, it became a private school and was recognized as a college that offers bachelor’s degree and certificates in various disciplines.

Church of the Sto. Niño of TondoIntramuros Administration

Tondo was one of the earliest churches built in Luzon outside of Intramuros. In its 1874 restoration, steel framing for the dome and iron sheets for roofing were used – a first for the Philippines.

Caretakers of the Pozo de la VirgenIntramuros Administration

Behind the church of Sta. Ana, outskirt of Manila, is the Chapel of the miraculous Well of the Virgin. It was a known pilgrimage site in the 19th century. The typhoid epidemic the following year this photo was taken forced it to close down.

Church of the Sto. Niño of PandacanIntramuros Administration

The church originated as a chapel that was built on a miraculous spring where the image of the Child Jesus was found. Around the time this photo was taken, Pandacan is a blossoming industrial district.

Place of the Angels in Paco CemeteryIntramuros Administration

Historic Paco Cemetery was built to cater to the Spanish aristocrats in Manila. The section on the photo is the grave for deceased babies. Jose Rizal was buried in this cemetery after his execution, initially in an unmarked grave.

La Loma Cemetery and the Mortuary Chapel of St. PancratiusIntramuros Administration

Built on the far north of Manila in 1884, it is the oldest Catholic cemetery in the Philippines (Older Paco was a state cemetery). It was originally called Cementerio de Binondo because it was under the jurisdiction of Sta. Cruz.

Binondo ChurchIntramuros Administration

The photo captures a normal busy day in one of the centers of trade and commerce in Manila. Binondo was a community, largely of Chinese traders. The church was established by the Dominicans primarily to serve the Chinese converts.

Church of the Black Nazarene of QuiapoIntramuros Administration

Quiapo was another center of commerce in Manila, where the elite built their mansions and craftsmen opened their ateliers. At the heart of it is this church. In the photo is the third church built, which was destroyed by fire a decade later.

San Sebastian Church of QuiapoIntramuros Administration

The only steel temple in the Philippines, the church was completed in 1891, almost only thirty years before this photo was taken. It is an example of the Gothic revival architecture in the Philippines.

Church of St. Vincent de PaulIntramuros Administration

The new concrete church located at San Marcelino St. in Ermita was built in 1912 coinciding with the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Vincentian Order and the Daughters of Charity in the Philippines.

Hospicio de San JoseIntramuros Administration

It was founded in 1782 to care for the poor and abandoned children. It also gives special attention to the mentally ill. After transferring from place to place, it finally settled in 1810 at the Isla de Convalecensia in the Pasig River.

Manila BayIntramuros Administration

Manila Bay facilitated business and trade between the Philippines and the rest of the world. It was host to merchant ships, boats and naval warships. It is also a recreation ground. Here we see people walking along the bay.

Ermita ChurchIntramuros Administration

The church faces the Manila Bay through the town plaza. In it is the oldest image of the Blessed Virgin in the country. The image was returned to the church from a long stay at Manila Cathedral just a year earlier than this photo.

Luneta Park (Rizal Park) and the Manila Carnival GroundsIntramuros Administration

In the center of the picture is the Rizal Monument, unveiled just a few years earlier in 1913. The Manila Carnival is held on the vast ground beside. This annual event was organized then to celebrate Filipino-American relations.

Estero de la ReinaIntramuros Administration

The estuary was a passageway for boats carrying goods. In this photo, we see a casco carrying jars of vinegar passing by. On the horizon is the Gandara Bridge.

Sta. Cruz ChurchIntramuros Administration

Before Estero de la Reina spills into the Pasig River, it passes in front of Sta. Cruz Church. The original church was built by the Jesuits in 1619, to serve a community where most of the residents were Chinese families.

Plaza Sta. CruzIntramuros Administration

The plaza was a part of Manila’s ‘downtown’ and lies at the end of Escolta. Plaza Sta. Cruz was the entertainment capital during the American colonial period with its bars and vaudevilles.

Escolta StreetIntramuros Administration

Here we see the development of the country’s primary commercial district during the American Occupation. Shops line the busy street. The tracks of the electric street tram can be seen on the ground.

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