Silent Witnesses: From Neolithic to the Seljuks

Rezan Has Museum has conducted a collective work aiming to present a seamless historical process with works covering a broad period from the Prehistoric Age to the Seljuk Empire. In the exhibition, besides displaying the works pertaining to various
civilizations that has settled in and around Anatolia between 6500 B.C.- 1500
A.D. chronologically, they are also exhibited thematically within their own
historical processes with arms, figurines, idols and lighting tools. In the exhibition, a bronze bathtub, Urartian pins, obsidian
arrow tips, harnesses for horses, devotional sculptures, oil-lamps and
terra-cotta sculptures may be seen besides the authentic works that have never
been exhibited before. 

Chronology image, Unknown, 2009, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Obsidian, Flintstone group (Neolithic Age, 7500 - 5500 BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Neolithic Period (9000-5500 BCE)

One of the most important features of the NeolithicPeriod, also named as the New Stone Age, was man cultivating plants and starting agriculture. The people who lived in Anatolia were first hunter-gatherers, after cultivation of land they started to be dependant on soil. In time simple, big and small village settlements started to emerge. Besides cultivation of plants certain animals were domesticated which helped men in his daily life. In the light of researches conducted until present day we know that in the early phases of the Neolithic, although people were settled they have not yet discovered the pottery making techniques (forming and baking). They met their needs by carving vessels out of wood and stone. In the course of time farming and stockbreeding developed; crops like wheat, barley and lentil were also included in the agriculture. In the centuries to come monochrome pottery that was shaped by hand was made with thick walls and simple forms.Towards the end of the Neolithic Period as dry farming activity increased, pottery production developed. The produced ceramics were now thinner, finely-baked vessels with brown, grey and beige colors. There were also redburnished wares over cream slip. Animal shaped and human-headed vessels were first observed during this period,too. Along with the change in lifestyle changes arouse in the belief system as well. Instead of painting hunting scenes, reproductive scenes became more common. Mother-goddess faith got to be widespread and the fertility of females was in the foreground now.

Jar with Pierced Lug Handles, Unknown, Late Neolithic Age, 6500 - 5500, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta jar with pierced lug handles.

Miniature Jar, Unknown, Late Neolithic Age, 6500 - 5500 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta miniature jar with small holes.

Bowl, Unknown, Neolithic Age, 7500 - 5500 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Stone bowl with incised linear motifs.

Caliche (Late Chalcolithic Age, 4500 - 3500 BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Chalcolithic Period (5500-3500 BCE)

Right after the Neolithic Period, the Chalcolithic, in

other words the Copper-Stone Age was experienced in

Anatolia. Such a name was given because besides stone

utensils, copper was used as well in making certain utensils.

In a way this was the transition period from the Stone Age

to the metal ages.

Just like in the Neolithic, many new things were

experienced in this period. The village life underwent a new

transition period and established the foundation of the City-

State-Empire socio-economical system which was to come

up later. Shifting to wet agriculture brought about the need

for a better organized society. Organized manpower meant

surplus; the storing and keeping of this material caused a

more complex social structure. Thus new professions and

branches were needed. By the increasing population and the

developing society a ruling class emerged. Meanwhile the

religious aspects were united with the leadership capacity.

Besides the prestigious edifices to meet the needs of this

newly established ruling class, monumental religious

architecture and public buildings were also built. In parallel

with the advancement of agriculture cities also grew larger

and became more prosperous. A society comprised of

familial relations was now taken over by a political

organization which developed systematically in the regional

base.

With the Chalcolithic Period Anatolia became a more

crowded land where organized societies started to live.

Hence it was divided into regions depending on the

differences in culture: The East, the Southeast Anatolia and

the Çukurova Plain were more under the Mesopotamian

cultural sphere; whereas the Western and Central Anatolia,

though in some parts showed distinctive local features, were

under the influence of the Aegean and the Balkanic cultures.

Carinated Jar, Unknown, Early Chalcolithic Age, 2nd half of the 5th Millenium BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta carinated jar with short and incised lines on a raised rope motif on the carina.

Brush Shaft (Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

The Bronze Age (3500-1200 BCE)

Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper

and usually tin and hence the period received its name. It

was divided into three periods as Early, Middle and Late

(Bronze Ages). In the first phase of the Bronze Age the

settlements were in the form of fortified, organized, liberal

city-states within which temples and governmental buildings

were also erected. The discovery of bronze was added on

top of the previous discoveries or inventions i.e. farming,

stockbreeding, textile and pottery production. This enabled

the production of more powerful weapons and finer

ornaments. Trading capacity increased and a broad tradingweb

was established from Mesopotamia to the Aegean and

the Balkans.

The Middle Bronze Age began at the beginning of the

2nd millennium BC. The most distinctive feature of the

period was the close and organized contacts established with

the Mesopotamian civilizations resulting with the

introduction of writing to Anatolia. During this period

together with the “Trading Colonies” writing was used in

everyday life from contracts to trading and from

matrimonial documents to adoption papers. The Assyrian

traders exported tin and fabric to Anatolia and imported

silver, gold and processed copper in return. By the beginning

of the 2nd millennium BC a central, political power was

formed in Anatolia, the Hittite Kingdom. Aleppo in

northern Syria was conquered; Babylonia at the southern

plains of Mesopotamia was looted (1595 BC) and the

country of Arzawa in western Anatolia was captured.

After the vast territory it gained the Hittite Kingdom

reached the level of Empire during the Late Bronze Age

(1450-1190 BC). Towards the end of the 13th century a

sudden collapse took place within the Empire. The capital

Hattusa was demolished after a severe fire. It is asserted that

the Kaskas who migrated from the Black Sea Mountains

were responsible of this catastrophe. We do not have too

much information about this last period when migration

activities to Anatolia started from the Caucasus and western

Anatolia and turbulence was suffered because of drought

and famine.

Model of a temple, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta model of a temple. Single-storey at front side while it is two-storey at back side. There are figures as busts at windows. Also there are standing relief figures at doors.

Bowl, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze beaker with globular shaped body and flat base.

Model of a cart, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BC, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta model of a cart with an animal relief on the front side. The model has also holes for wheels.

Caliche, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta caliche with a conical and slightly carinated body with triangular motifs

Triplet jars with basket-handle, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta triplet small jars with incised linear motifs.

Yortan-type miniature lidded jar, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta miniature jar with a lid with incised linear and punctuated motifs. A pottery of Yortan.

Yortan-type miniature lidded jar, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta miniature jar with a lid. A pottery of Yortan.

Rhyton, Unknown, 2nd Millennium BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta rhyton in the shape of a bird decorated with black and red upside down V's and grids

Jug, Unknown, Middle Bronze Age, 2000 - 1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta jug with a conical body and flat base and trefoil mouth. Linear and zigzag painted patterns

Incense Burner (Achaaemenid Period, 6-5th century BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Iron Age (1190-330 BCE)

After the political collapse of the Hittite Empire

towards 1190 BC, many principalities emerged in Anatolia.

This was a new, multi-layered political situation lacking a

central authority. During this period Anatolia was exposed

to migrations from all directions. Kaskas, the ruthless

enemies of the Hittites, took control of all Central Anatolia

north of River Halys. Northwestern Anatolia hosted many

communities who migrated from the Balkans. These people

have first settled in the Thrace, Propontis and the

Dardanelles region. Yet they moved on to the central parts

of Anatolia. The Muski people arriving via the Caucasus

settled at the west part of East Anatolia and the Aramians (a

sect of Semitic origin) moved in to the Southeastern

Anatolia. Use of iron became widespread. By the end of the

9th century BC all weapons and many of the necessary

instruments were made of iron.

During the 1st millennium BC new central powers

started to show their presence with great armies and wars.

The Urartians in East Anatolia; Phrygians, Lydians and the

Greek city-states in the Central and Western Anatolia; the

Hittites, Luwis, Aramians and other local communities in

Southeastern Anatolia each formed regional kingdoms. This

was the period when big wars, great massacres and forced

migration activities took place. It was also the period when

many developments and changes were encountered

especially in metallurgy and architecture. New societies,

languages and inscriptions now diversified and enriched the

ethnic and social structure of Anatolia. From the 6th century

onwards both the increasing raids of the nomadic Scythians

and Cimmerians and the military campaigns of the Persian

people i.e. the Persians and the Medes prepared the end of

the Iron Age Kingdoms of Anatolia.

Model of a city, Unknown, Middle Bronze Age, 2000 - 1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Rectangular model of a city with high pedestal. Two sides of the model is raised as city walls.

Jug, Unknown, Late Iron Age, 8th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta beak spouted pitcher whose surface painted with geometric patterns.

Rhyton, Unknown, Late Iron Age, 8th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta rhyton in the shape of a mountain goat.

Fibula, Unknown, Phrygian Period, 9-8th centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A horseshoe-shaped fibula of bronze.

Pectoral (8th century BCE) by UrartianRezan Has Museum

Urartians: A Civilization Unique to Anatolia

Between the 9th and 7th centuries BC, the Urartian

Kingdom dominated mainly in Eastern Anatolia, in the vast

land from the Transcaucasus in the north, including the

lakes Cildir and Sevan, to the Anti-Taurus Mountains in the

south; and from the Lake Urmia in the east to the Euphrates

River in the west and inland Iran in the northwest. The

capital of the Kingdom was Tuspa (today’s Van). The state

was governed by a central and theocratic regime. The king

was the ultimate authority. He was also the head-priest and

the representative of God on earth. The state was governed

by the many bureaucrats within the structure. The

administration of the provinces was obtained by the

governors appointed from the central government.

The Urartians made vital investments in public work

both at the capital and the other provinces. Amongst the

public work accomplished we may count the aqueducts and

the irrigation canals to water the dry land. They also

established road systems between the cities in the vast and

rough territory in order to bring order and provide security.

From the Urartian civilization many architectural edifices

have survived to the present day like the many fortresses,

cities, aqueducts, dams, canals, highways and monumental

rock-cut tombs. Besides the aforementioned main units, the

capital Tuspa also contained open-air altars and multiroomed,

monumental rock-cut tombs built for the afterlife

of the king.

Due to the presence of rich metal deposits in the

Urartian territory, metalwork was an advanced art. The

metal objects were mainly made of bronze as well as gold,

silver and iron. Helmets, shields, quivers, belts, pectorals,

pendants, chariot accessories and harnesses were all made of

bronze most of the time and they were usually decorated

with embossing and incised figures.

Protective Sheet, Unknown, Urartian Period, 8-7th centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A thin plaque of bronze formed as a protective sheet. Two faces with pointed chin and big, almond-shaped eyes decorated in relief.

Group of pins, Unknown, Urartian Period, 8-7th centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Image of a group of ornamental pins.Decorative pins constitute an important group among Urartian jewelry types. Urartians developed and diversified the earlier tradition of decorative pins and added new products to the repertoire. Urartian decorative pins are generally cast. Bronze is the most preferred metal, followed by silver, gold, gold-plate and bone.

Belt, Urartian, The end of the 8th century BCE, the beginning of the 7th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A belt composed of five fragments. All the fragments were attached together and the missing parts were completed. The outer border is perforated with small string holes with short gaps between them. A studded molding delimits the outer border of the decoration scene. The figures on the decoration surface proceed toward each end from the center of the belt, in three rows of similar type, one on top of the other. The figures were generally arranged symmetrically. The figures and cavalry on the hunter vehicle hunt mythological creatures as well as lion and bull. Hunting chariots and cavalry are hunting lions, bulls and mythological creatures. In addition, some mythological creatures are depicted hunting their own kind. The figures are placed alternately one after another, in a line. Three-foot soldiers with hunting equipment are placed on top of each other at the right end of the belt. Three winged divine figures with hunting equipment are placed on top of each other at the left end of the belt. A total of 99 figures are depicted in 33 successive columns on the belt. There is a loop-shaped buckle at the right end of the belt.

Jug, jar and caliches, Unknown, Urartian Period, 8-7th centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Urartian jug, jar and caliches made of terracotta.

Skyphos (Orientalizing Period, 8th century BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

The Greek Period in Anatolia (1500-30 BCE)

Within the frame of Migrations in the Aegean, the

Dorian invasion from northern Greece to the south has

ended the Achaean-Mycenaean civilization. For a certain

period the Dorians settled in the Peloponnesus, Crete,

southwestern shores of Anatolia and the adjacent islands.

Later as the Ionians settled in the central part of Western

Anatolia (Asia Minor) c. 10th century BC thus the region

was called Ionia.

During both colonization periods many cities were

established on the western coast of Anatolia. Herodotus mentions in his book the 12 Ionian cities.

To name a few we may count Miletus, Ephesus, Teos and

Phokaia. Beginning from the 8th century onwards some of

these city-states increased their power in the region. These

were liberal city-states and they were governed by

monarchy. The cities comprised of a central area (acropolis)

where the governmental units and religious buildings were

erected within the city walls and the surrounding settlement

area for the citizens. In certain examples the settlement area

was also surrounded by city walls. Though the governmental

regime was monarchy at the beginning, in time it gave way

to oligarchy, and from 7th century onwards the city-states

were governed by archons; selected noblemen from

aristocratic families.

From the 6th century onwards the Ionian City-States

had to face long-term struggles with the Persians. The 200

years Persian struggle and invasion in Anatolia was ended

by Alexander the Great’s expedition to the East. During

Alexander’s Asian Expedition (336-323 BC), which he

conducted by an army comprised of Macedonian and Greek

soldiers, the Greek culture infused greatly with the countries

in the east and likewise the eastern culture had impacts on

the Greek culture.

Skyphos - Bowl with Bird Depiction, Unknown, Archaic Period, 7th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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The skyphos painted with a bird whose body decorated with grids and diamond-shaped motifs filled with grids.

Alabastron, Unknown, Archaic Period, 7th - 6th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Alabastron decorated with a panther painting. Terracotta.

Aryballos, Unknown, Archaic Period, 7th - 6th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Small type of flask used to contain perfume or oil. This aryballos painted with vertical black, cream and red bands.

Oinochoe, Unknown, 4th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Wine-jug. Three figures form the center scene. At the very left, a dressed woman figure holding a hand-fan facing left. At the center, a naked figure is holding a strigilis and facing left. At the very right a dressed man is holding an object and facing toward the naked figure.

Lekythos, Unknown, Archaic Period, End of the 6th century - Beginning of the 5th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A type of one-handled pottery that has a narrow body and used to contain especially olive-oil. This lekythos painted with a cavalry, who is wearing a hat and holding a spear, at the center. Above, a grill-shaped and a meander band.

Kylix, Unknown, 4th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A type of two-handled wine-drinking cup with a shallow body. This kylix is set on a high stemmed pedestal with a lip gently bented outwards while the handles bented upwards. Undecorated.

Lebes Gamikos, Unknown, 4th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Lebes gamikos is a special wedding ritual pottery. This high-stemmed bowl has a ribbed body with high handles and a lid.

Skyphos, Unknown, 4th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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This skyphos all-black and undecorated except for the seven palmettes incised at the center of the inside of the cup.

Trough (Roman Period, 1st - 2nd centuries AD) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Roman Period in Anatolia (30 BCE-476 AD)

At the beginning Rome was just the name of a city

built in central Italy in the 8th century BC. Via its successful

expansion policy it first became a Republic, and then an

Empire. Rome’s first relation with Anatolia started when it

gained the territory of the Pergamene Kingdom in the 2nd

century BC. In 129 BC Rome formed a state named “Asia”

at the same lands which used to belong to the Pergamene

Kingdom. After the battles which took place in the 1st

century BC between the Romans and the king of Pontus

Mithridates VI, Pontus, Bithynia, Cilicia, Galatia, Lycia and

Pamphylia became provinces. Especially in the 2nd century

AD Anatolia lived its Golden Age under the Roman Rule,

too.

In the proceeding centuries as its territory has

expanded vastly the Empire started to have problems in

ruling its land. Its economy has also weakened significantly.

By the Diocletian Reform in the 3rd century AD the land of

the Empire was divided into many provinces. In the 4th

century AD the old city of Byzantium was developed and

reconstructed by the emperor Constantine the Great. Hence

the city was named after him, as Constantinople, and it

became the second capital of the Empire. When Rome fell

after the northern attacks of the Goths and the Germanic

tribes in the 5th century AD, Constantinople started to rule

the Empire alone and for almost a millennium.

Jar with Lid, Unknown, Early Roman Period, 1st century BC - 1st century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta jar with a lid. Shoulders are wide, body is narrowing down to the bottom and terminates with a ring base.

Oil Churn, Unknown, Roman Period, 1st century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze oil churn with a lid. The back side of the lid, which is connected to a long handle, is in form of a plastic bird. The tip of the handle is in form of a plane tree leaf.

Jug, Unknown, Roman period, 1st-2nd centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Jug made of lead.

Jug, Unknown, Roman period, 1st-2nd centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze jug.

Bathtub / Sarcophagus, Unknown, Early Roman Period, 1st century BCE - 1st century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze bathub or sarchophagus with four half-circular riveted handles.Forged.

Stele, Unknown, Roman Period, 1st - 2nd centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Marble stele decorated with a full-dressed woman with one arm bent towards her chest and one leg stepped forward. Inscription on the lower part saying "Zosime (built) this stele in memory of her (husband/brother?) Rhodan".

Pitcher, Unknown, Roman Period, 2-3rd century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Glass pitcher

Patera, Unknown, Roman period, 1st-3rd centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze patera.

Incense Burner (Early Byzantine Period, 5-6th century AD) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

The Byzantine Period 

The Byzantine Empire ruled for about eleven hundred

years from the 4th century until the mid-15th century AD.

Its most expanded boundaries were during the 6th century.

It comprised of all the land around the Mediterranean plus

Thrace, the Balkans, Crimea and some parts of Russia. The

Byzantine emperors thought of themselves as the successors

of the Roman emperors and always used the title “ruler of

Romans.” Yet modern day historians accept the Byzantines

as a separate historical asset and name this empire as “the

Byzantine Empire” in regard to its capital, Byzantium

(Byzantion).

Due to its strategic position the Roman emperor

Constantine I had chosen this city as a second capital in the

east, after Rome. The city provided a passage to trading in

the Black Sea; it was also the spot where two continents

met; having been surrounded by water it could easily be

defended against attacks and also keeping the advantageous

situation of the Golden Horn in mind this mediocre city of

the Empire was flourished. With glorious festivities the city

was blessed on May 11, 330 and the Christian belief was

liberated in the city which now bore the name

Constantinople. This date is accepted as the beginning of the

Byzantine Empire. Its end was determined by the Ottomans

led by Mehmed the Conqueror when he conquered the city

on May 29, 1453.

The Byzantine civilization was an important power and

a world-state during the Late Antiquity and the Middle

Ages. It was an Empire on the east side of the

Mediterranean, governed by the state and juristic systems

inherited from the Roman Empire. Although its roots

nourished from the Greek and Roman cultures, it surely was

affected by the beliefs, ideas and artwork of the previous

and contemporary cultures of Anatolia, Persia, the Balkans,

Europe, Black Sea, the Aegean and the Mediterranean. Even

after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul), the

Byzantine culture continued to influence the Ottomans, the

Europeans and the Russians.

Ampulla (Holy Oil Flask), Early Byzantine Period, 5-7th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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An ampulla of terracotta with two eyelets and with relief decoration of a big cross standing on a column base placed in an archway.

Relic Cases, Unknown, Late Roman - Early Byzantine Period, 4 - 6th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A relic case made of lead, marble and bone with a cross carved on it.

Necklace with Cross, Unknown, Early Byzantine Period, 5- 6th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Necklace formed with gold, agate and glass and a pendant cross.

Polykandelon, Unknown, Early Byzantine Period, 6-7th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Polykandelon made of bronze. Encircled by an inscription saying "†ὑπερὶ εὐχῆς Θεοκτίστου Κυριάδου. / For the healt of Theoktistos, son of Kyriades".

Polykandelon, Unknown, Early Byzantine Period, 6-7th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Polykandelon made of bronze and decorated with cricles and a cross at the center.

Talisman, Unknown, Early Byzantine Period, 6-7th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Talisman in the shape of a mirror back of bronze. There is an incised decoration of a mythological figure in a circle and bird figrues each placed in seperated u-shaped divisions encircling the circle at the center.

Relic case, Unknown, 4-5th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Lead relic case. Undecorated.

Talisman, Unknown, Byzantine Period, 4-15th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Talisman of a circle form made of bronze and lead. There are various symbols carved on it.

Talisman mould, Unknown, Byzantine Period, 4-15th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Talisman mould made of stone. There is a schematized man figure in a circle at the center.

Cross, Unknown, Byzantine Period, 10-11th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze ritual cross.

Cross, Unknown, Middle Byzantine Period, 11-12th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Cross made of silver and glazed with gold with carved decoration of Jesus Christ at the center, Virgin Mary at the left arm and Ioannes Prodromos at the right arm. There are inscriptions above each figure saying "IC XC / Ihtus Christus= Christ the Redeemer above the Christ; Meter Theou= Mother of God above Mary and Ioannes Prodromos above Ioannes".

Bowl, Unknown, Byzantine Period, 12th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta bowl with incised fish decoration.

Bucket, Unknown, Early Byzantine Period, 6-7th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Copper bucket with handle and with an inscription on it saying "ὑγιένουσα χροῦ, κύρα, ἐν πόλλοις σε χρόνοις./ Use this lady, in good helath for many years".

Patera, Unknown, Byzantine period, 5-7th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze patera with a deep body and hand folded back.

Incense Burner (11-13th century AD) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

The Seljuk Period / Islamic Period

The Seljuks started to be politically and culturally

effective in Anatolia since the beginning of 11th century.

During the Seljukid Period, various new techniques were

applied in metalwork and the motifs on the objects

produced reflected traces of different cultures. Especially the

workshops in Konya and the region of the Artuqids were the

main centers of metal art. Among the Seljukid metal objects

many of them were functional like handled mirrors, incense

burners, bowls, perfume bottles, washbowls and trays.

During this period tile work also developed immensely.

Yet the same development cannot be observed in ceramic

arts. The colors used in ceramic production were mostly

yellow, brown and tones of green. The composition of

Seljuk and Byzantine ceramics show parallels. Amongst the

most frequently used figures in the Seljukid ceramics we see

birds, hunters, geometric and floral patterns.

Besides metal and ceramic the Seljuks were highly

advanced in the arts of tile work, plaster work and

miniature as well. The most frequently used material in

architecture was stone. Hence stone masonry was quite

progressed, too. Other than these, woodcarving and tapestry

were the two advanced arts to reflect the Seljukid taste.

Perfume Flask, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 9-10th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Perfume flaks made of bronze. Rectangular body. Cylindrical necked. Decorated with incised motifs.

Perfume Flask, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 9-10th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Perfume flaks made of cut glass. Rectangular body. Four-feeted.

Perfume Flask, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 9-10th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Perfume flaks made of bone. Rectangular body. Four-feeted. Long,cylindrical necked. Decorated with incised circular motifs.

Bowl, Unknown, Islamic, 11-12th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bowl made of glass with blue amorph dots at the belly.

Plate, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 12th century AD?, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A plate with a rooster figure made of bronze and silver. Conical handle is placed at the center of the plate and formed as a rooster.

Bowl, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 11-13th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze bowl with floral motifs.

Enchanted Necklace, Unknown, Islamic, 15-16th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Enchanted necklace of a square form decorated with a cat, a scorpion and a woman figure holding an object with her two hands.

Lock, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 11-12th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Lock made of bronze with a key fused into the body.

Flask, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 13th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta water flask. Unglazed. Decorated with floral motifs in relief.

Bowl, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 13-14th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta bowl with turqouise motifs inside.

Bowl, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 12-13th centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta glazed bowl decorated with floral motifs and radial turqouise lines inside.

Votive Figurine (Early Neolithic Age, 7500 - 6500 BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Human Depictions in Anatolia

The first depictions of humans ever known in Anatolia

were found in the Karain Cave. A human head incised at the

end of an animal rib bone is from the Upper Palaeolithic

Period. During the proceeding period, the Protoneolithic,

human depictions are only observed on the walls of Beldibi

Cave, an under-rock shelter. Since the Neolithic Period

human depictions in Anatolia increased significantly in

number. In the recently excavated sites like Göbekli Tepe

and Nevali Çori, besides the two or three dimensional

examples found on stones from the Aceramic Period of the

Neolithic, human shaped clay figurines were also produced

at Çayönü and Cafer Höyük. During the proceeding period,

the Early Neolithic, these objects gained a special feature

depicting mostly women. The use of women in figurines

mainly relied on the mother goddess belief in Anatolia. This

belief was reflected on the figurines by forming parallels

with the fertility of women and the abundance in nature.

These naturalistic female figurines all have exaggerated

breasts and thighs in order to emphasize fertility; thus

abundance and prosperity.

After the Early Neolithic Period the human depictions

continued to be naturalistic in style and aesthetic in form yet

now only females were depicted in three dimensional forms.

In other words the naturalism of female figurines has

reached its acme period in the Late Neolithic. After this

period abstract figurines started to take place. This change

increased even more during the Early Chalcolithic Period.

Yet in the Late Chalcolithic Period figurines gained the

features of an idol. The change was more rapid towards the

end of the Late Chalcolithic and reached its acme period at

Early Bronze Age I. After this phase details of physical and

facial appearance of the figurines were mostly not depicted.

The transition from figurines to idols has taken its final

form especially during the Early Bronze Age I and the same

features were continued until the end of this period. As

parallels to the change in appearance the materials used in

producing female figurines also changed. The terracotta

figurines were replaced by light colored marble idols as

observed from the many examples found especially in

Western Anatolia. This status continued through the entire

Early Bronze Age I.

Goddess Idol, Late Neolithic Age, 6500 - 5500 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Marble idol of a mother goddess. Mother goddess idols are the reflections of the fertility. In the ancient world, these figurines were the main emblems symbolizing woman's fertility, her social status ans sanctity which may still be attributed to her. In general,, breasts and hips are depicted in an exaggrated manner. There are also depictions of goddess figurines shown while giving birth. It is obvious that the figurines depicted with leopards on both sides, as symbol power, represent a holy power which dominates nature. Fertility, the descendance of the line or the symbols of plenty are the concepts that have shaped the faith in the manner of goddess in Anatolia, reflecting a tradition thousands of years old. Together with the farming societies appeared in Anatolia for the first time, this concept is identified with the fertility of the earth. Woman's fertility was matched with the fruitfulness of the earth. These figurines, especially known by the examples coming from Neolithic and Chalcolithic layers in centers like Çatalhöyük and Hacılar, were schematized in time and continued to be used.

Idol, Unknown, Late Neolithic Age, 6500 - 5500 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Schematized mother goddess idol sits in a cross-legged position.

Pendantive Idol, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Pendantive idol of silver of a ring form with mounted dots all around the body.

Idol, Unknown, Late Chalcolitich Age, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Marble idol consisting of a head and a body without arms and legs. The head is in the form of a horizontal eight with very big almond-shaped eyes and thick eyebrows.

Idol, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Twin idols made of lead.

Idol, unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500-2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta idol without legs. Arms very short. Decorated with a cross-incised band motif.

Stautte, Unknown, Late Bronze Age, 1450 - 1190 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Statuettes of quadruple gods made of bronze. Wearing long, triangular hats and dresses. Big-eyed.

Figurine, Unknown, Assyrian Colony Period, 2000-1750 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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A standing male figurine of lead with two small wings. He's wearing a decorated cap and a decorated long dress. Arms extending two sides. Eyes are exagratted.

Statuette, Unknown, Assyrian Period, 9-8th century BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Statuette of a standing deity figure. Arms upraised.

Statuette Head, Unknown, Archaic Period, 7-6th centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta statuette head. Head of a man wearing a triangular cap ornate with red lattice-shaped lines. Facial elements are exaggerated. Chin is alongated.

Figurine stamp, Unknown, Lydian Period, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze figurine of a standing woman with big, almond-shaped eyes. Upraised her hand towards her chest. Full-dressed.

Figurine, Unknown, Hellenistic Period, 3rd - 2nd centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze African figurine wearing a cloak and seated cross-legged on a base.

Statuette, Unknown, Late Hellenistic - Early Roman Period, 1st century BCE - 1st century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta statuette of a reading lady. An open book on her lap.

Stauette, Unknown, Late Hellenistic - Roman Period, 1st century BCE - 3rd century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta statuette of standing and half-dressed Aphrodite and two small standing Eros in a niche. Aphrodite uprises her two arms; one towards her head and one holding an object.

Statuette, Unknown, Roman Period, 1st century BCE- 4th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Triple Hekate Stautettes made of marble. Full dressed, long haired with hat.

Aphrodite statuette, Unknown, Late Hellenistic - Roman Period, 1st century BCE - 3rd century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Naked Aphrodite statuette with a small Eros standing by her.

Statuette, Unknown, Islamic, 12th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Standing male statuette of limestone. Wearing a hat and holding a sword.

Theatre Mask, Unknown, Hellenistic Period, 3-2nd centuries BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta theater mask representing a male character from ancient tragedy.

Oil lamp (Hellenistic Period, 2nd - 1st centuries BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Illumination Instruments

The discovery of fire was the biggest step forward in

civilization for mankind. After the heating and the

illuminating features of fire were discovered men could

easily invent the devices necessary in daily life. Besides their

heating function the fire lit in the caves and cottages also

enabled cooking thus food became more easily edible and

tasty. The fire also lit the surrounding and protected them

from the attacks of wild animals. At certain time periods

during the day in places where the sun and moonlight is not

sufficient controlled fires were lit and instruments to be used

for such a purpose were produced. In a short while besides

the easy solutions like torches, firelighters etc. less dangerous

and controlled illumination instruments were produced. The

first lamps were created by burning animal fats and

vegetable oils within mollusk shells via a wick. In a short

while they were made of terracotta. Oil lamps were the

earliest illumination gadgets and were left at temples as

votive instruments and they also accompanied the dead in

their graves.

According to the results obtained from the

archaeological studies, the illumination instruments were

used around the Mediterranean basin, in Syria, Palestine,

Cyprus, Greece and Anatolia as early as the 2nd millennium

BC. These were small terracotta bowls which held the oil

and the wick within. During the Hellenistic and Roman

Period serial production of lamps were made possible by

using the potter’s wheel and molding. On these lamps there

were the depictions of historical characters, scenes from

daily life, erotic, mythological, and hunting scenes, and also

animal figures and floral compositions were made all in

relief form. In the Christian belief -whether it be from the

sun, or a candle or a lamp- “flame or light” symbolized

Jesus, who has united with God and the eternity of Eden.

Besides their daily usage especially during the religious

ceremonies held in churches illumination elements were

formed according to a certain pattern bound with the

architecture of the edifice. They were charged by symbolic

meanings. Oil lamps were still in use during the Seljuk

Period and they were often made of terracotta or bronze.

Oil lamp, Unknown, Late Roman - Early Byzantine Period, 4-5th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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An oil lamp of terracotta with a decoration of a big bird on diskus and floral motifs encircling it.

Candelabrum, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 12th century AD?, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Candelabrum made of bronze with small holes and incised floral decorations at the bottom.

Oil lamp, Unknown, Roman Period, 1st - 3rd centuries AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Oil lamp of bronze in the form of a mouth-open African face.

Oil lamp, Unknown, Early Byzantine Period, 6-7th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze oil lamp with a lid. Handle is formed as tree branch.

Oil lamp, Unknown, Seljuk Period, 11-13th century AD, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Terracotta oil lamp. Turquoise glazed. Sun motif on diskus.

Plugged Flat-axe (Late Bronze Age, 1450 - 1190 BCE) by UnknownRezan Has Museum

Weapons

Men have produced weapons for various reasons;

primarily to win the battle against nature, to protect them

from any kind of danger and to protect the land they

owned. Men started to produce simple weapons made of

stone to protect themselves from wild animals, to feed, to

hunt and occasionally to solve the disputes amongst each

other. Usually they chipped off the stones found in nature by

even harder stones or simply used the stone pieces which

could easily be shaped into a weapon. First examples of

weapon technology were the axes and chisels made of stone

and obsidian. Copper was discovered during the

Chalcolithic Period (5800-3400 BC) and through the

alloying of copper and tin bronze was obtained; a metal

widely used during the Bronze Age (3400-1200 BC) where

more effective weapons with sharp edges were procured.

The diversity of weapons in the Bronze Age can easily be

observed in axes with helve holes, flat and eyed, and flat

forms. Daggers, blades, spears, arrowheads and various

sized swords are among the widely used weapon types in

this period.

All weapons were produced by casting in different

techniques. During the Early Bronze Age weapons such as

spearheads, daggers, blades, swords, arrowheads and axes

were cast in sand, clay or stone molds. Daggers, spearheads

and arrowheads must have been roughly formed in sand or

clay molds at first and then they were given their final

shapes through cold or warm forging process.

Mace Head, Unknown, Middle Bronze Age, 2000 - 1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze mace head of double axe-head form with elongated stipes. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.

Mace Head, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze mace head of tube form with elongated stipes. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.

Mace Head, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500 - 2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Stone polished mace head of circular form. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.

Hand grenade, Unknown, Byzantine Period, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.

Hand grenade, Unknown, Byzantine Period, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.

Hand grenade, Unknown, Byzantine Period, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.

Sword, Unknown, Iron Age, Early 1st millennium BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze sword.

Axe mould, Unknown, Late Bronze Age, 1450 - 1190 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Mould of a shaft hole axe. Bronze

Lugged flat axe., Unknown, Late Bronze Age, 1450 - 1190 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Plugged flat axe.

Shaft hole axe, Unknown, Middle Bronze Age, 2000-1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze axe with a shaft hole.

Socket Spear Head, Middle Bronze Age, 2000-1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze socket spear head.

Spear head, Unknown, Middle Bronze Age , 2000-1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze spear head

Eye Axe, Unknown, Middle Bronze Age, 2000-1450 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze axe.

Flat axe, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500-2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze flat axe.

Axe, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500-2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze axe.

Dagger, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500-2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze dagger.

Butted Spear Head, Unknown, Early Bronze Age, 3500-2000 BCE, From the collection of: Rezan Has Museum
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Bronze butted spear head.

Credits: Story

Project Manager: Zeynep Çulha

Academic Advisory Board: Prof. Önder Bilgi, Prof.Gülgün Köroğlu, Assoc.Prof Rafet Çavuşoğlu, Gülcan Kongaz, Haluk Perk

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.