Rezan Has Museum has conducted a collective work aiming to present a seamless historical process with works covering a broad period from the Prehistoric Age to the Seljuk Empire. In the exhibition, besides displaying the works pertaining to various
civilizations that has settled in and around Anatolia between 6500 B.C.- 1500
A.D. chronologically, they are also exhibited thematically within their own
historical processes with arms, figurines, idols and lighting tools. In the exhibition, a bronze bathtub, Urartian pins, obsidian
arrow tips, harnesses for horses, devotional sculptures, oil-lamps and
terra-cotta sculptures may be seen besides the authentic works that have never
been exhibited before.
Neolithic Period (9000-5500 BCE)
One of the most important features of the NeolithicPeriod, also named as the New Stone Age, was man cultivating plants and starting agriculture. The people who lived in Anatolia were first hunter-gatherers, after cultivation of land they started to be dependant on soil. In time simple, big and small village settlements started to emerge. Besides cultivation of plants certain animals were domesticated which helped men in his daily life. In the light of researches conducted until present day we know that in the early phases of the Neolithic, although people were settled they have not yet discovered the pottery making techniques (forming and baking). They met their needs by carving vessels out of wood and stone. In the course of time farming and stockbreeding developed; crops like wheat, barley and lentil were also included in the agriculture. In the centuries to come monochrome pottery that was shaped by hand was made with thick walls and simple forms.Towards the end of the Neolithic Period as dry farming activity increased, pottery production developed. The produced ceramics were now thinner, finely-baked vessels with brown, grey and beige colors. There were also redburnished wares over cream slip. Animal shaped and human-headed vessels were first observed during this period,too. Along with the change in lifestyle changes arouse in the belief system as well. Instead of painting hunting scenes, reproductive scenes became more common. Mother-goddess faith got to be widespread and the fertility of females was in the foreground now.
Terracotta jar with pierced lug handles.
Terracotta miniature jar with small holes.
Stone bowl with incised linear motifs.
Chalcolithic Period (5500-3500 BCE)
Right after the Neolithic Period, the Chalcolithic, in
other words the Copper-Stone Age was experienced in
Anatolia. Such a name was given because besides stone
utensils, copper was used as well in making certain utensils.
In a way this was the transition period from the Stone Age
to the metal ages.
Just like in the Neolithic, many new things were
experienced in this period. The village life underwent a new
transition period and established the foundation of the City-
State-Empire socio-economical system which was to come
up later. Shifting to wet agriculture brought about the need
for a better organized society. Organized manpower meant
surplus; the storing and keeping of this material caused a
more complex social structure. Thus new professions and
branches were needed. By the increasing population and the
developing society a ruling class emerged. Meanwhile the
religious aspects were united with the leadership capacity.
Besides the prestigious edifices to meet the needs of this
newly established ruling class, monumental religious
architecture and public buildings were also built. In parallel
with the advancement of agriculture cities also grew larger
and became more prosperous. A society comprised of
familial relations was now taken over by a political
organization which developed systematically in the regional
With the Chalcolithic Period Anatolia became a more
crowded land where organized societies started to live.
Hence it was divided into regions depending on the
differences in culture: The East, the Southeast Anatolia and
the Çukurova Plain were more under the Mesopotamian
cultural sphere; whereas the Western and Central Anatolia,
though in some parts showed distinctive local features, were
under the influence of the Aegean and the Balkanic cultures.
Terracotta carinated jar with short and incised lines on a raised rope motif on the carina.
The Bronze Age (3500-1200 BCE)
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper
and usually tin and hence the period received its name. It
was divided into three periods as Early, Middle and Late
(Bronze Ages). In the first phase of the Bronze Age the
settlements were in the form of fortified, organized, liberal
city-states within which temples and governmental buildings
were also erected. The discovery of bronze was added on
top of the previous discoveries or inventions i.e. farming,
stockbreeding, textile and pottery production. This enabled
the production of more powerful weapons and finer
ornaments. Trading capacity increased and a broad tradingweb
was established from Mesopotamia to the Aegean and
The Middle Bronze Age began at the beginning of the
2nd millennium BC. The most distinctive feature of the
period was the close and organized contacts established with
the Mesopotamian civilizations resulting with the
introduction of writing to Anatolia. During this period
together with the “Trading Colonies” writing was used in
everyday life from contracts to trading and from
matrimonial documents to adoption papers. The Assyrian
traders exported tin and fabric to Anatolia and imported
silver, gold and processed copper in return. By the beginning
of the 2nd millennium BC a central, political power was
formed in Anatolia, the Hittite Kingdom. Aleppo in
northern Syria was conquered; Babylonia at the southern
plains of Mesopotamia was looted (1595 BC) and the
country of Arzawa in western Anatolia was captured.
After the vast territory it gained the Hittite Kingdom
reached the level of Empire during the Late Bronze Age
(1450-1190 BC). Towards the end of the 13th century a
sudden collapse took place within the Empire. The capital
Hattusa was demolished after a severe fire. It is asserted that
the Kaskas who migrated from the Black Sea Mountains
were responsible of this catastrophe. We do not have too
much information about this last period when migration
activities to Anatolia started from the Caucasus and western
Anatolia and turbulence was suffered because of drought
Terracotta model of a temple. Single-storey at front side while it is two-storey at back side. There are figures as busts at windows. Also there are standing relief figures at doors.
Bronze beaker with globular shaped body and flat base.
Terracotta model of a cart with an animal relief on the front side. The model has also holes for wheels.
Terracotta caliche with a conical and slightly carinated body with triangular motifs
Terracotta triplet small jars with incised linear motifs.
Terracotta miniature jar with a lid with incised linear and punctuated motifs. A pottery of Yortan.
Terracotta miniature jar with a lid. A pottery of Yortan.
Terracotta rhyton in the shape of a bird decorated with black and red upside down V's and grids
Terracotta jug with a conical body and flat base and trefoil mouth. Linear and zigzag painted patterns
Iron Age (1190-330 BCE)
After the political collapse of the Hittite Empire
towards 1190 BC, many principalities emerged in Anatolia.
This was a new, multi-layered political situation lacking a
central authority. During this period Anatolia was exposed
to migrations from all directions. Kaskas, the ruthless
enemies of the Hittites, took control of all Central Anatolia
north of River Halys. Northwestern Anatolia hosted many
communities who migrated from the Balkans. These people
have first settled in the Thrace, Propontis and the
Dardanelles region. Yet they moved on to the central parts
of Anatolia. The Muski people arriving via the Caucasus
settled at the west part of East Anatolia and the Aramians (a
sect of Semitic origin) moved in to the Southeastern
Anatolia. Use of iron became widespread. By the end of the
9th century BC all weapons and many of the necessary
instruments were made of iron.
During the 1st millennium BC new central powers
started to show their presence with great armies and wars.
The Urartians in East Anatolia; Phrygians, Lydians and the
Greek city-states in the Central and Western Anatolia; the
Hittites, Luwis, Aramians and other local communities in
Southeastern Anatolia each formed regional kingdoms. This
was the period when big wars, great massacres and forced
migration activities took place. It was also the period when
many developments and changes were encountered
especially in metallurgy and architecture. New societies,
languages and inscriptions now diversified and enriched the
ethnic and social structure of Anatolia. From the 6th century
onwards both the increasing raids of the nomadic Scythians
and Cimmerians and the military campaigns of the Persian
people i.e. the Persians and the Medes prepared the end of
the Iron Age Kingdoms of Anatolia.
Rectangular model of a city with high pedestal. Two sides of the model is raised as city walls.
Terracotta beak spouted pitcher whose surface painted with geometric patterns.
Terracotta rhyton in the shape of a mountain goat.
A horseshoe-shaped fibula of bronze.
Urartians: A Civilization Unique to Anatolia
Between the 9th and 7th centuries BC, the Urartian
Kingdom dominated mainly in Eastern Anatolia, in the vast
land from the Transcaucasus in the north, including the
lakes Cildir and Sevan, to the Anti-Taurus Mountains in the
south; and from the Lake Urmia in the east to the Euphrates
River in the west and inland Iran in the northwest. The
capital of the Kingdom was Tuspa (today’s Van). The state
was governed by a central and theocratic regime. The king
was the ultimate authority. He was also the head-priest and
the representative of God on earth. The state was governed
by the many bureaucrats within the structure. The
administration of the provinces was obtained by the
governors appointed from the central government.
The Urartians made vital investments in public work
both at the capital and the other provinces. Amongst the
public work accomplished we may count the aqueducts and
the irrigation canals to water the dry land. They also
established road systems between the cities in the vast and
rough territory in order to bring order and provide security.
From the Urartian civilization many architectural edifices
have survived to the present day like the many fortresses,
cities, aqueducts, dams, canals, highways and monumental
rock-cut tombs. Besides the aforementioned main units, the
capital Tuspa also contained open-air altars and multiroomed,
monumental rock-cut tombs built for the afterlife
of the king.
Due to the presence of rich metal deposits in the
Urartian territory, metalwork was an advanced art. The
metal objects were mainly made of bronze as well as gold,
silver and iron. Helmets, shields, quivers, belts, pectorals,
pendants, chariot accessories and harnesses were all made of
bronze most of the time and they were usually decorated
with embossing and incised figures.
A thin plaque of bronze formed as a protective sheet. Two faces with pointed chin and big, almond-shaped eyes decorated in relief.
Image of a group of ornamental pins.Decorative pins constitute an important group among Urartian jewelry types. Urartians developed and diversified the earlier tradition of decorative pins and added new products to the repertoire. Urartian decorative pins are generally cast. Bronze is the most preferred metal, followed by silver, gold, gold-plate and bone.
A belt composed of five fragments. All the fragments were attached together and the missing parts were completed. The outer border is perforated with small string holes with short gaps between them. A studded molding delimits the outer border of the decoration scene. The figures on the decoration surface proceed toward each end from the center of the belt, in three rows of similar type, one on top of the other. The figures were generally arranged symmetrically. The figures and cavalry on the hunter vehicle hunt mythological creatures as well as lion and bull. Hunting chariots and cavalry are hunting lions, bulls and mythological creatures. In addition, some mythological creatures are depicted hunting their own kind. The figures are placed alternately one after another, in a line. Three-foot soldiers with hunting equipment are placed on top of each other at the right end of the belt. Three winged divine figures with hunting equipment are placed on top of each other at the left end of the belt. A total of 99 figures are depicted in 33 successive columns on the belt. There is a loop-shaped buckle at the right end of the belt.
Urartian jug, jar and caliches made of terracotta.
The Greek Period in Anatolia (1500-30 BCE)
Within the frame of Migrations in the Aegean, the
Dorian invasion from northern Greece to the south has
ended the Achaean-Mycenaean civilization. For a certain
period the Dorians settled in the Peloponnesus, Crete,
southwestern shores of Anatolia and the adjacent islands.
Later as the Ionians settled in the central part of Western
Anatolia (Asia Minor) c. 10th century BC thus the region
was called Ionia.
During both colonization periods many cities were
established on the western coast of Anatolia. Herodotus mentions in his book the 12 Ionian cities.
To name a few we may count Miletus, Ephesus, Teos and
Phokaia. Beginning from the 8th century onwards some of
these city-states increased their power in the region. These
were liberal city-states and they were governed by
monarchy. The cities comprised of a central area (acropolis)
where the governmental units and religious buildings were
erected within the city walls and the surrounding settlement
area for the citizens. In certain examples the settlement area
was also surrounded by city walls. Though the governmental
regime was monarchy at the beginning, in time it gave way
to oligarchy, and from 7th century onwards the city-states
were governed by archons; selected noblemen from
From the 6th century onwards the Ionian City-States
had to face long-term struggles with the Persians. The 200
years Persian struggle and invasion in Anatolia was ended
by Alexander the Great’s expedition to the East. During
Alexander’s Asian Expedition (336-323 BC), which he
conducted by an army comprised of Macedonian and Greek
soldiers, the Greek culture infused greatly with the countries
in the east and likewise the eastern culture had impacts on
the Greek culture.
The skyphos painted with a bird whose body decorated with grids and diamond-shaped motifs filled with grids.
Alabastron decorated with a panther painting. Terracotta.
Small type of flask used to contain perfume or oil. This aryballos painted with vertical black, cream and red bands.
Wine-jug. Three figures form the center scene. At the very left, a dressed woman figure holding a hand-fan facing left. At the center, a naked figure is holding a strigilis and facing left. At the very right a dressed man is holding an object and facing toward the naked figure.
A type of one-handled pottery that has a narrow body and used to contain especially olive-oil. This lekythos painted with a cavalry, who is wearing a hat and holding a spear, at the center. Above, a grill-shaped and a meander band.
A type of two-handled wine-drinking cup with a shallow body. This kylix is set on a high stemmed pedestal with a lip gently bented outwards while the handles bented upwards. Undecorated.
Lebes gamikos is a special wedding ritual pottery. This high-stemmed bowl has a ribbed body with high handles and a lid.
This skyphos all-black and undecorated except for the seven palmettes incised at the center of the inside of the cup.
Roman Period in Anatolia (30 BCE-476 AD)
At the beginning Rome was just the name of a city
built in central Italy in the 8th century BC. Via its successful
expansion policy it first became a Republic, and then an
Empire. Rome’s first relation with Anatolia started when it
gained the territory of the Pergamene Kingdom in the 2nd
century BC. In 129 BC Rome formed a state named “Asia”
at the same lands which used to belong to the Pergamene
Kingdom. After the battles which took place in the 1st
century BC between the Romans and the king of Pontus
Mithridates VI, Pontus, Bithynia, Cilicia, Galatia, Lycia and
Pamphylia became provinces. Especially in the 2nd century
AD Anatolia lived its Golden Age under the Roman Rule,
In the proceeding centuries as its territory has
expanded vastly the Empire started to have problems in
ruling its land. Its economy has also weakened significantly.
By the Diocletian Reform in the 3rd century AD the land of
the Empire was divided into many provinces. In the 4th
century AD the old city of Byzantium was developed and
reconstructed by the emperor Constantine the Great. Hence
the city was named after him, as Constantinople, and it
became the second capital of the Empire. When Rome fell
after the northern attacks of the Goths and the Germanic
tribes in the 5th century AD, Constantinople started to rule
the Empire alone and for almost a millennium.
Terracotta jar with a lid. Shoulders are wide, body is narrowing down to the bottom and terminates with a ring base.
Bronze oil churn with a lid. The back side of the lid, which is connected to a long handle, is in form of a plastic bird. The tip of the handle is in form of a plane tree leaf.
Jug made of lead.
Bronze bathub or sarchophagus with four half-circular riveted handles.Forged.
Marble stele decorated with a full-dressed woman with one arm bent towards her chest and one leg stepped forward. Inscription on the lower part saying "Zosime (built) this stele in memory of her (husband/brother?) Rhodan".
The Byzantine Period
The Byzantine Empire ruled for about eleven hundred
years from the 4th century until the mid-15th century AD.
Its most expanded boundaries were during the 6th century.
It comprised of all the land around the Mediterranean plus
Thrace, the Balkans, Crimea and some parts of Russia. The
Byzantine emperors thought of themselves as the successors
of the Roman emperors and always used the title “ruler of
Romans.” Yet modern day historians accept the Byzantines
as a separate historical asset and name this empire as “the
Byzantine Empire” in regard to its capital, Byzantium
Due to its strategic position the Roman emperor
Constantine I had chosen this city as a second capital in the
east, after Rome. The city provided a passage to trading in
the Black Sea; it was also the spot where two continents
met; having been surrounded by water it could easily be
defended against attacks and also keeping the advantageous
situation of the Golden Horn in mind this mediocre city of
the Empire was flourished. With glorious festivities the city
was blessed on May 11, 330 and the Christian belief was
liberated in the city which now bore the name
Constantinople. This date is accepted as the beginning of the
Byzantine Empire. Its end was determined by the Ottomans
led by Mehmed the Conqueror when he conquered the city
on May 29, 1453.
The Byzantine civilization was an important power and
a world-state during the Late Antiquity and the Middle
Ages. It was an Empire on the east side of the
Mediterranean, governed by the state and juristic systems
inherited from the Roman Empire. Although its roots
nourished from the Greek and Roman cultures, it surely was
affected by the beliefs, ideas and artwork of the previous
and contemporary cultures of Anatolia, Persia, the Balkans,
Europe, Black Sea, the Aegean and the Mediterranean. Even
after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul), the
Byzantine culture continued to influence the Ottomans, the
Europeans and the Russians.
An ampulla of terracotta with two eyelets and with relief decoration of a big cross standing on a column base placed in an archway.
A relic case made of lead, marble and bone with a cross carved on it.
Necklace formed with gold, agate and glass and a pendant cross.
Polykandelon made of bronze. Encircled by an inscription saying "†ὑπερὶ εὐχῆς Θεοκτίστου Κυριάδου. / For the healt of Theoktistos, son of Kyriades".
Polykandelon made of bronze and decorated with cricles and a cross at the center.
Talisman in the shape of a mirror back of bronze. There is an incised decoration of a mythological figure in a circle and bird figrues each placed in seperated u-shaped divisions encircling the circle at the center.
Lead relic case. Undecorated.
Talisman of a circle form made of bronze and lead. There are various symbols carved on it.
Talisman mould made of stone. There is a schematized man figure in a circle at the center.
Bronze ritual cross.
Cross made of silver and glazed with gold with carved decoration of Jesus Christ at the center, Virgin Mary at the left arm and Ioannes Prodromos at the right arm. There are inscriptions above each figure saying "IC XC / Ihtus Christus= Christ the Redeemer above the Christ; Meter Theou= Mother of God above Mary and Ioannes Prodromos above Ioannes".
Terracotta bowl with incised fish decoration.
Copper bucket with handle and with an inscription on it saying "ὑγιένουσα χροῦ, κύρα, ἐν πόλλοις σε χρόνοις./ Use this lady, in good helath for many years".
Bronze patera with a deep body and hand folded back.
The Seljuk Period / Islamic Period
The Seljuks started to be politically and culturally
effective in Anatolia since the beginning of 11th century.
During the Seljukid Period, various new techniques were
applied in metalwork and the motifs on the objects
produced reflected traces of different cultures. Especially the
workshops in Konya and the region of the Artuqids were the
main centers of metal art. Among the Seljukid metal objects
many of them were functional like handled mirrors, incense
burners, bowls, perfume bottles, washbowls and trays.
During this period tile work also developed immensely.
Yet the same development cannot be observed in ceramic
arts. The colors used in ceramic production were mostly
yellow, brown and tones of green. The composition of
Seljuk and Byzantine ceramics show parallels. Amongst the
most frequently used figures in the Seljukid ceramics we see
birds, hunters, geometric and floral patterns.
Besides metal and ceramic the Seljuks were highly
advanced in the arts of tile work, plaster work and
miniature as well. The most frequently used material in
architecture was stone. Hence stone masonry was quite
progressed, too. Other than these, woodcarving and tapestry
were the two advanced arts to reflect the Seljukid taste.
Perfume flaks made of bronze. Rectangular body. Cylindrical necked. Decorated with incised motifs.
Perfume flaks made of cut glass. Rectangular body. Four-feeted.
Perfume flaks made of bone. Rectangular body. Four-feeted. Long,cylindrical necked. Decorated with incised circular motifs.
Bowl made of glass with blue amorph dots at the belly.
A plate with a rooster figure made of bronze and silver. Conical handle is placed at the center of the plate and formed as a rooster.
Bronze bowl with floral motifs.
Enchanted necklace of a square form decorated with a cat, a scorpion and a woman figure holding an object with her two hands.
Lock made of bronze with a key fused into the body.
Terracotta water flask. Unglazed. Decorated with floral motifs in relief.
Terracotta bowl with turqouise motifs inside.
Terracotta glazed bowl decorated with floral motifs and radial turqouise lines inside.
Human Depictions in Anatolia
The first depictions of humans ever known in Anatolia
were found in the Karain Cave. A human head incised at the
end of an animal rib bone is from the Upper Palaeolithic
Period. During the proceeding period, the Protoneolithic,
human depictions are only observed on the walls of Beldibi
Cave, an under-rock shelter. Since the Neolithic Period
human depictions in Anatolia increased significantly in
number. In the recently excavated sites like Göbekli Tepe
and Nevali Çori, besides the two or three dimensional
examples found on stones from the Aceramic Period of the
Neolithic, human shaped clay figurines were also produced
at Çayönü and Cafer Höyük. During the proceeding period,
the Early Neolithic, these objects gained a special feature
depicting mostly women. The use of women in figurines
mainly relied on the mother goddess belief in Anatolia. This
belief was reflected on the figurines by forming parallels
with the fertility of women and the abundance in nature.
These naturalistic female figurines all have exaggerated
breasts and thighs in order to emphasize fertility; thus
abundance and prosperity.
After the Early Neolithic Period the human depictions
continued to be naturalistic in style and aesthetic in form yet
now only females were depicted in three dimensional forms.
In other words the naturalism of female figurines has
reached its acme period in the Late Neolithic. After this
period abstract figurines started to take place. This change
increased even more during the Early Chalcolithic Period.
Yet in the Late Chalcolithic Period figurines gained the
features of an idol. The change was more rapid towards the
end of the Late Chalcolithic and reached its acme period at
Early Bronze Age I. After this phase details of physical and
facial appearance of the figurines were mostly not depicted.
The transition from figurines to idols has taken its final
form especially during the Early Bronze Age I and the same
features were continued until the end of this period. As
parallels to the change in appearance the materials used in
producing female figurines also changed. The terracotta
figurines were replaced by light colored marble idols as
observed from the many examples found especially in
Western Anatolia. This status continued through the entire
Early Bronze Age I.
Marble idol of a mother goddess. Mother goddess idols are the reflections of the fertility. In the ancient world, these figurines were the main emblems symbolizing woman's fertility, her social status ans sanctity which may still be attributed to her. In general,, breasts and hips are depicted in an exaggrated manner. There are also depictions of goddess figurines shown while giving birth. It is obvious that the figurines depicted with leopards on both sides, as symbol power, represent a holy power which dominates nature. Fertility, the descendance of the line or the symbols of plenty are the concepts that have shaped the faith in the manner of goddess in Anatolia, reflecting a tradition thousands of years old. Together with the farming societies appeared in Anatolia for the first time, this concept is identified with the fertility of the earth. Woman's fertility was matched with the fruitfulness of the earth. These figurines, especially known by the examples coming from Neolithic and Chalcolithic layers in centers like Çatalhöyük and Hacılar, were schematized in time and continued to be used.
Schematized mother goddess idol sits in a cross-legged position.
Pendantive idol of silver of a ring form with mounted dots all around the body.
Marble idol consisting of a head and a body without arms and legs. The head is in the form of a horizontal eight with very big almond-shaped eyes and thick eyebrows.
Twin idols made of lead.
Terracotta idol without legs. Arms very short. Decorated with a cross-incised band motif.
Statuettes of quadruple gods made of bronze. Wearing long, triangular hats and dresses. Big-eyed.
A standing male figurine of lead with two small wings. He's wearing a decorated cap and a decorated long dress. Arms extending two sides. Eyes are exagratted.
Statuette of a standing deity figure. Arms upraised.
Terracotta statuette head. Head of a man wearing a triangular cap ornate with red lattice-shaped lines. Facial elements are exaggerated. Chin is alongated.
Bronze figurine of a standing woman with big, almond-shaped eyes. Upraised her hand towards her chest. Full-dressed.
Bronze African figurine wearing a cloak and seated cross-legged on a base.
Terracotta statuette of a reading lady. An open book on her lap.
Terracotta statuette of standing and half-dressed Aphrodite and two small standing Eros in a niche. Aphrodite uprises her two arms; one towards her head and one holding an object.
Triple Hekate Stautettes made of marble. Full dressed, long haired with hat.
Naked Aphrodite statuette with a small Eros standing by her.
Standing male statuette of limestone. Wearing a hat and holding a sword.
Terracotta theater mask representing a male character from ancient tragedy.
The discovery of fire was the biggest step forward in
civilization for mankind. After the heating and the
illuminating features of fire were discovered men could
easily invent the devices necessary in daily life. Besides their
heating function the fire lit in the caves and cottages also
enabled cooking thus food became more easily edible and
tasty. The fire also lit the surrounding and protected them
from the attacks of wild animals. At certain time periods
during the day in places where the sun and moonlight is not
sufficient controlled fires were lit and instruments to be used
for such a purpose were produced. In a short while besides
the easy solutions like torches, firelighters etc. less dangerous
and controlled illumination instruments were produced. The
first lamps were created by burning animal fats and
vegetable oils within mollusk shells via a wick. In a short
while they were made of terracotta. Oil lamps were the
earliest illumination gadgets and were left at temples as
votive instruments and they also accompanied the dead in
According to the results obtained from the
archaeological studies, the illumination instruments were
used around the Mediterranean basin, in Syria, Palestine,
Cyprus, Greece and Anatolia as early as the 2nd millennium
BC. These were small terracotta bowls which held the oil
and the wick within. During the Hellenistic and Roman
Period serial production of lamps were made possible by
using the potter’s wheel and molding. On these lamps there
were the depictions of historical characters, scenes from
daily life, erotic, mythological, and hunting scenes, and also
animal figures and floral compositions were made all in
relief form. In the Christian belief -whether it be from the
sun, or a candle or a lamp- “flame or light” symbolized
Jesus, who has united with God and the eternity of Eden.
Besides their daily usage especially during the religious
ceremonies held in churches illumination elements were
formed according to a certain pattern bound with the
architecture of the edifice. They were charged by symbolic
meanings. Oil lamps were still in use during the Seljuk
Period and they were often made of terracotta or bronze.
An oil lamp of terracotta with a decoration of a big bird on diskus and floral motifs encircling it.
Candelabrum made of bronze with small holes and incised floral decorations at the bottom.
Oil lamp of bronze in the form of a mouth-open African face.
Bronze oil lamp with a lid. Handle is formed as tree branch.
Terracotta oil lamp. Turquoise glazed. Sun motif on diskus.
Men have produced weapons for various reasons;
primarily to win the battle against nature, to protect them
from any kind of danger and to protect the land they
owned. Men started to produce simple weapons made of
stone to protect themselves from wild animals, to feed, to
hunt and occasionally to solve the disputes amongst each
other. Usually they chipped off the stones found in nature by
even harder stones or simply used the stone pieces which
could easily be shaped into a weapon. First examples of
weapon technology were the axes and chisels made of stone
and obsidian. Copper was discovered during the
Chalcolithic Period (5800-3400 BC) and through the
alloying of copper and tin bronze was obtained; a metal
widely used during the Bronze Age (3400-1200 BC) where
more effective weapons with sharp edges were procured.
The diversity of weapons in the Bronze Age can easily be
observed in axes with helve holes, flat and eyed, and flat
forms. Daggers, blades, spears, arrowheads and various
sized swords are among the widely used weapon types in
All weapons were produced by casting in different
techniques. During the Early Bronze Age weapons such as
spearheads, daggers, blades, swords, arrowheads and axes
were cast in sand, clay or stone molds. Daggers, spearheads
and arrowheads must have been roughly formed in sand or
clay molds at first and then they were given their final
shapes through cold or warm forging process.
Bronze mace head of double axe-head form with elongated stipes. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.
Bronze mace head of tube form with elongated stipes. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.
Stone polished mace head of circular form. Perforated for mounting on a probably wooden haft.
Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.
Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.
Pear-shaped hand grenade which has stamp-decorations with a small mouth. Terracotta.
Mould of a shaft hole axe. Bronze
Plugged flat axe.
Bronze axe with a shaft hole.
Bronze socket spear head.
Bronze spear head
Bronze flat axe.
Bronze butted spear head.
Project Manager: Zeynep Çulha
Academic Advisory Board: Prof. Önder Bilgi, Prof.Gülgün Köroğlu, Assoc.Prof Rafet Çavuşoğlu, Gülcan Kongaz, Haluk Perk