Braxton Trent: The Gods of Egypt 

This votive statue of Osiris is a bronze statue dating back to 664 B.C. The statue stands at a height of 25.5 cm and a length of 105 cm. This type of statue was used as offerings for the Egyptian gods’ various temples. This statue is a representation of Osiris depicted in a mummified state. Osiris in most of his depictions wears either a white crown to represent Upper Egypt or a Atef crown that has plume feathers on each side and a sun disc at the top. (1) In this depiction he is wearing the crown for Upper Egypt and two plume feathers on each side. While having both arms crossed holding the scepters: crook and flail over his chest. (2) Osiris is considered the king of the netherworld or god of the dead. The reason he is usually shown as a mummified king is, because the artist wanted to symbolizes that he was the king of the netherworld on this statue. (2) Many Egyptians referred to him as god and he is one of the most prominent Heloptian Ennead gods. (2) Asir which was the name Osiris was known as by the Egyptians and Osiris being his Greek name was once human and lived on the earth. He lived as a good and benevolent ruler to his people until he was killed by his brother Set another ancient God. After his death Osiris was made the king of the Egyptian’s underworld and judged the dead souls residing there. Osiris was also a god of agriculture and that before he made agriculture Egyptians were cannibals. As a god of agriculture Osiris was symbolically killed and his body broken to represent the harvest of crops. This could be seen as the death and rebirth of crops during the agricultural cycle. (1) Osiris is considered the Egyptian’s belief of rebirth and he gives them the sense of justice and order. 1. "Osiris." Gods of Ancient Egypt:. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://ancientegyptonline.co.uk/osiris>. 2. "Votive Statue of Osiris - Google Cultural Institute." Votive Statue of Osiris - Google Cultural Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2016. <https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/votive-statue-of-osiris/-gGQbWvnmy7eYg?hl=en>.
The quartzite statue of Osorkon I as the Nile-God Hapy was created in 900 B.C. It stands at 220 cm and is made up of sandstone and quartzite. In this relief the water god Hapy is holding an offering table surrounded by the representations of the abundance he brings to Egypt. This type of statute serves as a representation of the fertility and productiveness of the ground on which the temple stands. Although this relief is about the water god, his features are similar to that of Osorkon I.(2) Many times throughout Egyptian artworks the pharaoh’s distinctive features are used to create the face and sometimes the bodies of commonly known Egyptian gods. The artists might do this out of admiration or respect for the pharaohs, but I think it is mainly because the pharaohs wanted to show their people that they are on the same level as gods. Hapy was a god of water and fertility. He was also another popular god of ancient Egypt. His fame might have come from his name being a pre-cursor to the Nile river. The Nile river was a main source of food, water, and vegetation to the ancient Egyptians. So to them the Nile could be perceived as a god. Hapy is usually depicted as a plump man with large breasts and green or blue skin. (1) His description was mainly used as a symbolization of a god of fertility. Hapy was also a patron of Upper and Lower Egypt. (1) Although he was often depicted as a single god by carrying both the papyrus and lotus. Hapy could also be depicted as two deities representing Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. In Upper Egypt he was called Hap-Reset where he is depicted with a papyrus headdress pouring a jug of water and in Lower Egypt he was depicted as Hap-Meht with a lotus headdress pouring a jug of water. Hapy is consider one of the most powerful deities of ancient Egypt, because of his connection to the Nile and the inundation. (1) (1) "Hapi." Gods of Ancient Egypt:. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/hapi.html>. - (2)"Quartzite Statue of Osorkon I as the Nile-god Hapy - The British Museum." Quartzite Statue of Osorkon I as the Nile-god Hapy - The British Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/asset-viewer/quartzite-statue-of-osorkon-i-as-the-nile-god-hapy/4AEtmTJacCIUAQ?hl=en>.
This figure of the god Bes was dated between 600 B.C. to 450 B.C. This figure is made of terracotta with a height of 17 cm. Based on many other Egyptian figures like this I can speculate that this idol served the purpose of being an offering to Bes, similar to the statue of Osiris. Bes was an Egyptian dwarf god known for being a god of war and a demonic fighter. Although he was usually labelled as a devil the Egyptians never considered him to be truly evil. This could be what made him one of the most popular ancient gods of Egypt like Osiris. (1) Bes job was being a protector to the Pharaoh, to women, and to children above any others. Bes was often depicted on furniture, weapons, wands, and amulets that many of the Egyptians possessed. (1) It can be suspected that the Egyptian’s did this, because they believed Bes divine protection from evil spirits can be extended to objects with his depiction. In one example many Egyptians placed his statue outside their homes fend off against evil spirits. Some Egyptians took it a step a farther by having Bes depicted tattooed to their body. (1) In these depiction he is usually illustrated as a dwarf that is looking frontal and is squatting. In this figure Bes is also squatting and facing frontal. He has both arms by his side and has his hands on his legs. In many Egyptian styles when the idol is sitting and has both arms by his side it usually represents a figure with authority. Since Bes was a God of war I was expecting he would be depicted as him fighting or holding a weapon. So from this figure you can see how the Egyptian depicted him. Although he was considered a warrior and labelled as a devil the Egyptian still saw Bes as being a figure of authority. 1. "Bes." Gods of Ancient Egypt:. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/bes.html>.
The bronze figure of Horus of Pe was created in 600 B.C. The figure stands at a height of 25 cm with a weight of 3.3 kg and it was excavated in Egypt. The figure depicts Horus of Pe kneeling. This posture of kneeling with a first across the chest and another in the air represents jubilation. The gesture of Jubilation is called henu. Henu was a pose that represented a god or king being hailed with the instinctive of being ready to crush your enemy. Although I see this pose as more of a salute to show respect towards a king or someone of higher authority. The posture, short kilt, and long wig clearly represents the god known as the soul of Pe. (2) The soul of Pe is usually represented by a falcon-headed figure. (1) The figure of the soul of Pe is depicted with muscular like features, very slender, and long, which is an artistic style very common for Egyptian sculptors. On the wig, eyes, and eyelids it is suggested that they very once embedded with precious metals, perhaps to show the piety of the follower. The figure is a hollow cast used mainly in a lost waxing technique. (2) The figure like Bes, and Osiris would have also been considered as an offering and placed in a temple dedicated to either the soul of Pe or Horus. (2) The soul of Pe is one of the two souls that represented pre-dynastic rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt. (1). The other soul being the soul of Nekhen. The soul of Nekhen is usually represented by a figure with a jackal’s head. (1) These two souls were known to be protectors and followers of Horus. Nekhen and Pe are the deities that upholds the divine right of kingship and they also serve the role of welcoming the kings of Egypt into the afterlife. They would help kings to heaven by using a golden ladder that was necessary to reach heaven. Since heaven was a place that has the sky as it’s floor. (1) 1. "Souls of Pe and Nekhen." ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://landofpyramids.org/souls-pe-nekhen.htm>. 2. "Figure." British Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=111576&partId=1>.
The Bronze seated figure of Amun was created between 1 A.D. - 99 A.D. and was excavated in Egypt. The figure of Amun is seated up straight and facing frontal. Although his arms are now gone we can assume that the original form for this figure may have had his hands laying on his lap. This specific pose is very common in many Egyptian artworks. It is used as a representation of authority and power. The figure of Amun is usually depicted as having a ram’s head and while sitting on a throne. Although he can be usually associated with any number of animals and depicted with other animal features as well. (1) In some texts he takes on attributes of animals like regeneration and shedding his own skin like that of a snake. Amun was considered the king of the gods and was one of the eight ancient gods of Egypt that formed the Ogdoad of Hermopolis. Amun would be the same as the Greek god Zeus. During the New Kingdom his popularity grew so much so that Egypt was almost made into a monotheistic state. He was also considered to be the god of air. While also being the father and the protector of the Pharaoh. (1) When he was later on adopted into the Ennead of Heliopolis he merged with Ra to become Amun-Ra. Once he did this he became an entity that was both hidden and visible. This in which reflected Egyptians sense of balance and duality. (1) In some ancient Egyptian texts they say that Amun was the primeval creator who created himself then everything else. During the Opet festival which was held in Amun’s honor, the Egyptians would send a statue of Amun down the Nile river from one temple to the next to symbolizes Amun’s marriage to Mut (1). 1. "Amun." Gods of Ancient Egypt:. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2016. <http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/amun.html>.
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