Tree bark was used to make watercraft by the Indigenous peoples of the Niagara region. This canoe is made of birch bark that was used by Algonkian and Anishinabek artisans, because it was lightweight and very durable. The seams are waterproofed with melted pine pitch or spruce gum. The information about this artifact comes from the project Empathic Traditions; please see empathictraditions.ca for more information. Image by Mark Zelinski.


  • Title: Birch Bark Canoe

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